# American Institute of Mathematical Sciences

June  2017, 12(2): 297-317. doi: 10.3934/nhm.2017013

## A macroscopic traffic model with phase transitions and local point constraints on the flow

 1 Gran Sasso Science Institute, Viale F. Crispi 7,67100 L'Aquila, Italy 2 Instytut Matematyki, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Plac Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

* Corresponding author: Massimiliano D. Rosini

Received  November 2016 Revised  January 2017 Published  May 2017

In this paper we present a macroscopic phase transition model with a local point constraint on the flow. Its motivation is, for instance, the modelling of the evolution of vehicular traffic along a road with pointlike inhomogeneities characterized by limited capacity, such as speed bumps, traffic lights, construction sites, toll booths, etc. The model accounts for two different phases, according to whether the traffic is low or heavy. Away from the inhomogeneities of the road the traffic is described by a first order model in the free-flow phase and by a second order model in the congested phase. To model the effects of the inhomogeneities we propose two Riemann solvers satisfying the point constraints on the flow.

Citation: Mohamed Benyahia, Massimiliano D. Rosini. A macroscopic traffic model with phase transitions and local point constraints on the flow. Networks & Heterogeneous Media, 2017, 12 (2) : 297-317. doi: 10.3934/nhm.2017013
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##### References:
Geometrical meaning of the notations used through the paper. In particular, $\Omega_{\rm f} = \Omega_{\rm f}^- \cup \Omega_{\rm f}^+$ and $\Omega_{\rm c}$ are the free-flow and congested domains, respectively; $V_{\rm f}^+$ and $V_{\rm f}^-$ are the maximal and minimal speeds in the free-flow phase, respectively, and $V_{\rm c}$ is the maximal speed in the congested phase
Geometrical meaning of the cases (T11a) and (T11b). Above $u_\ell'$ and $u_\ell''$ are $u_\ell$ in two different cases
Geometrical meaning of the cases (T12a) and (T12b). Above $u_\ell'$ and $u_\ell''$ are $u_\ell$ in two different cases
Geometrical meaning of the cases (T21a), (T21b) and (T22a). Above $u_\ell'$ and $u_\ell''$ are $u_\ell$ in two different cases
$(\rho_1, v_1) \doteq \mathcal{R}_1^{\rm c}[u_\ell,u_r]$ and $(\rho_2, v_2) \doteq \mathcal{R}_2^{\rm c}[u_\ell,u_r]$ in the case considered in Example 1.
The invariant domains described in Proposition 6 and Proposition 9
$u_1 \doteq \mathcal{R}_1^{\rm c}[u_0,u_0]$ and $u_2 \doteq \mathcal{R}_2^{\rm c}[u_0,u_0]$ in the case considered in Example 2. Above $\hat{u}_1,\check{u}_1$ are given by (T11b) and $\hat{u}_2,\check{u}_2$ by (T21b); we let $w_0 = W(u_0)$, $\check{v}_i = V(\check{u}_i)$, $\hat{w}_2 = W(\hat{u}_2)$, $\check{w}_i = W(\check{u}_i)$
Notations used in Section 5
The solutions constructed in Subsection 5.1 on the left and in Subsection 5.2 on the right represented in the $(x,t)$-plane. The red thick curves are phase transitions. In particular, those along $x=0$ are stationary undercompressive phase transitions
Quantitative representation of density, on the left, and velocity, on the right, corresponding to the solutions constructed in Subsection 5.1 and Subsection 5.2. Recall that the two solutions coincide up to the interaction $i_5$
Quantitative representation of density, on the left, and velocity, on the right, corresponding to the solution constructed in Subsection 5.2
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