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May  2018, 1(2): 121-147. doi: 10.3934/mfc.2018007

A survey on security and privacy issues of blockchain technology

Kennesaw State University, Marietta, GA 30060, USA

* Corresponding author: Meng Han

Received  December 2017 Revised  February 2018 Published  May 2018

Blockchain is gaining traction and can be termed as one of the furthermost prevalent topics nowadays. Although critics question about its scalability, security, and sustainability, it has already transformed many individuals' lifestyle in some areas due to its inordinate influence on industries and businesses. Granting that the features of blockchain technology guarantee more reliable and expedient services, it is important to consider the security and privacy issues and challenges behind the innovative technology. The spectrum of blockchain applications range from financial, healthcare, automobile, risk management, Internet of things (IoT) to public and social services. Several studies focus on utilizing the blockchain data structure in various applications. However, a comprehensive survey on technical and applications perspective has not yet been accomplished. In this paper, we try to conduct a comprehensive survey on the blockchain technology by discussing its structure to different consensus algorithms as well as the challenges and opportunities from the prospective of security and privacy of data in blockchains. Furthermore, we delve into future trends the blockchain technology can adapt in the years to come.

Index Terms- Blockchains, Future Trends of Blockchains, Security, Privacy

Citation: Archana Prashanth Joshi, Meng Han, Yan Wang. A survey on security and privacy issues of blockchain technology. Mathematical Foundations of Computing, 2018, 1 (2) : 121-147. doi: 10.3934/mfc.2018007
References:
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[2]

Security implications of blockchain cloud with analysis of block withholding attack., 2017 17th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing (CCGRID), 458.Google Scholar

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C. Ai, M. Han, J. Wang and M. Yan, An efficient social event invitation framework based on historical data of smart devices, in 2016 IEEE International Conferences on Social Computing and Networking (SocialCom), IEEE, 2016, 229–236. doi: 10.1109/BDCloud-SocialCom-SustainCom.2016.44. Google Scholar

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F. Chen, P. Deng, J. Wan, D. Zhang, A. V. Vasilakos and X. Rong, Data mining for the internet of things: Literature review and challenges International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 11 (2015), 431047. doi: 10.1155/2015/431047. Google Scholar

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Z. Duan, M. Yan, Z. Cai, X. Wang, M. Han and Y. Li, Truthful incentive mechanisms for social cost minimization in mobile crowdsourcing systems Sensors, 16 (2016), p481. doi: 10.3390/s16040481. Google Scholar

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P. Jin Ho and P. Jong Hyuk, Blockchain security in cloud computing: Use cases, challenges, and solutions., Symmetry (20738994), 9 (2017), 1-13. Google Scholar

[24]

A. Kiayias and G. Panagiotakos, Speed-security tradeoffs in blockchain protocols, IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2015 (2015), 1019.Google Scholar

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V. King and J. Saia, Scalable byzantine computation, ACM SIGACT News, 41 (2010), 89-104. doi: 10.1145/1855118.1855136. Google Scholar

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R. Kotla, L. Alvisi, M. Dahlin, A. Clement and E. Wong, Zyzzyva: Speculative byzantine fault tolerance, in ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, ACM, 41 (2007), 45–58. doi: 10.1145/1294261.1294267. Google Scholar

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D. Larimer, Delegated proof-of-stake white paper, 2014.Google Scholar

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[31]

X. Li, P. Jiang, T. Chen, X. Luo and Q. Wen, A survey on the security of blockchain systems, Future Generation Computer Systems (2017), URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167739X17318332.

10.1016/j.future.2017.08.020Google Scholar

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[33]

I.-C. Lin and T.-C. Liao, A survey of blockchain security issues and challenges., IJ Network Security, 19 (2017), 653-659. Google Scholar

[34]

L. A. Linn and M. B. Koo, Blockchain for health data and its potential use in health it and health care related research, in ONC/NIST Use of Blockchain for Healthcare and Research Workshop. Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States: ONC/NIST, 2016.Google Scholar

[35]

L. Luu, V. Narayanan, K. Baweja, C. Zheng, S. Gilbert and P. Saxena, Scp: A computationally-scalable byzantine consensus protocol for blockchains., IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2015 (2015), 1168.Google Scholar

[36]

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[37]

J. Mendling, I. Weber, W. V. D. Aalst, J. V. Brocke, C. Cabanillas, F. Daniel, S. Debois, C. D. Ciccio, M. Dumas, S. Dustdar et al., Blockchains for business process management-challenges and opportunities, ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems (TMIS), 9 (2018), Article No. 4. doi: 10.1145/3183367. Google Scholar

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[41]

K. Suankaewmanee, D. T. Hoang, D. Niyato, S. Sawadsitang, P. Wang and Z. Han, Performance analysis and application of mobile blockchain, arXiv preprint, arXiv: 1712.03659.Google Scholar

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T. Swanson, Consensus-as-a-service: A brief report on the emergence of permissioned, distributed ledger systems, Report, available online, Apr.Google Scholar

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D. Tapscott and A. Tapscott, Blockchain.Google Scholar

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[45]

F. Tschorsch and B. Scheuermann, Bitcoin and beyond: A technical survey on decentralized digital currencies, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 18 (2016), 2084-2123. doi: 10.1109/COMST.2016.2535718. Google Scholar

[46]

D. Verma, N. Desai, A. Preece and I. J. Taylor, A blockchain based architecture for asset management in coalition operations, SPIE, 2017.Google Scholar

[47]

V. Vishumurthy, S. Chandrakumar and E. G. Sirer, Karma: A secure economic framework for peer-to-peer resource sharing, in Proceedings of the 2003 Workshop on Economics of Peer-to-Peer Systems, Berkeley CA, 2003.Google Scholar

[48]

M. Vukolić, The quest for scalable blockchain fabric: Proof-of-work vs. bft replication, in International Workshop on Open Problems in Network Security, Springer, 2015, 112–125.Google Scholar

[49]

Y. WangZ. CaiX. TongY. Gao and G. Yin, Truthful incentive mechanism with location privacy-preserving for mobile crowdsourcing systems, Computer Networks, 135 (2018), 32-43. doi: 10.1016/j.comnet.2018.02.008. Google Scholar

[50]

G. Wood, Ethereum: A secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger, Ethereum Project Yellow Paper, 151 (2014), 1-32. Google Scholar

[51]

Z. Xiong, S. Feng, D. Niyato, P. Wang and Z. Han, Edge computing resource management and pricing for mobile blockchain, arXiv preprint, arXiv: 1710.01567.Google Scholar

[52]

X. Xu, I. Weber, M. Staples, L. Zhu, J. Bosch, L. Bass, C. Pautasso and P. Rimba, A taxonomy of blockchain-based systems for architecture design, in Software Architecture (ICSA), 2017 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2017, 243–252.Google Scholar

[53]

L. ZhangZ. Cai and X. Wang, Fakemask: a novel privacy preserving approach for smartphones, IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, 13 (2016), 335-348. Google Scholar

[54]

X. Zheng, Z. Cai, J. Li and H. Gao, Location-privacy-aware review publication mechanism for local business service systems, in INFOCOM 2017-IEEE Conference on Computer Communications, IEEE, IEEE, 2017, 1–9.Google Scholar

[55]

X. Zheng, Z. Cai and Y. Li, Data linkage in smart iot systems: A consideration from privacy perspective., IEEE Communications Magazine.Google Scholar

[56]

X. Zheng, G. Luo and Z. Cai, A fair mechanism for private data publication in online social networks, IEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering.Google Scholar

[57]

Z. Zheng, S. Xie, H. -N. Dai and H. Wang, Blockchain challenges and opportunities: A survey, Work Pap.Google Scholar

[58]

Z. Zheng, S. Xie, H. Dai, X. Chen and H. Wang, An overview of blockchain technology: Architecture, consensus, and future trends, in Big Data (BigData Congress), 2017 IEEE International Congress on, IEEE, 2017, 557–564.Google Scholar

[59]

G. Zyskind, O. Nathan et al., Decentralizing privacy: Using blockchain to protect personal data, in Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW), 2015 IEEE, IEEE, 2015, 180–184.Google Scholar

show all references

References:
[1]

Data aggregation scheduling in probabilistic wireless networks with cognitive radio capability, in 2016 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2016, 1–6.Google Scholar

[2]

Security implications of blockchain cloud with analysis of block withholding attack., 2017 17th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing (CCGRID), 458.Google Scholar

[3]

C. Ai, M. Han, J. Wang and M. Yan, An efficient social event invitation framework based on historical data of smart devices, in 2016 IEEE International Conferences on Social Computing and Networking (SocialCom), IEEE, 2016, 229–236. doi: 10.1109/BDCloud-SocialCom-SustainCom.2016.44. Google Scholar

[4]

A. Back et al., Hashcash-a denial of service counter-measure.Google Scholar

[5]

N. Barnas, Blockchains in national defense: Trustworthy systems in a trustless world, Blue Horizons Fellowship, Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama.Google Scholar

[6]

Z. CaiZ. HeX. Guan and Y. Li, Collective data-sanitization for preventing sensitive information inference attacks in social networks, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, (2016), 1-1. doi: 10.1109/TDSC.2016.2613521. Google Scholar

[7]

N. CapursoT. SongW. ChengJ. Yu and X. Cheng, An android-based mechanism for energy efficient localization depending on indoor/outdoor context, IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 4 (2017), 299-307. doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2016.2553100. Google Scholar

[8]

F. Chen, P. Deng, J. Wan, D. Zhang, A. V. Vasilakos and X. Rong, Data mining for the internet of things: Literature review and challenges International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 11 (2015), 431047. doi: 10.1155/2015/431047. Google Scholar

[9]

A. Dorri, S. S. Kanhere and R. Jurdak, Blockchain in internet of things: challenges and solutions, arXiv preprint, arXiv: 1608.05187.Google Scholar

[10]

A. DorriM. StegerS. S. Kanhere and R. Jurdak, Blockchain: A distributed solution to automotive security and privacy, IEEE Communications Magazine, 55 (2017), 119-125. doi: 10.1109/MCOM.2017.1700879. Google Scholar

[11]

Z. Duan, M. Yan, Z. Cai, X. Wang, M. Han and Y. Li, Truthful incentive mechanisms for social cost minimization in mobile crowdsourcing systems Sensors, 16 (2016), p481. doi: 10.3390/s16040481. Google Scholar

[12]

A. S. Elmaghraby and M. M. Losavio, Cyber security challenges in smart cities: Safety, security and privacy, Journal of Advanced Research, 5 (2014), 491-497. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2014.02.006. Google Scholar

[13]

J. A. GarayA. Kiayias and N. Leonardos, The bitcoin backbone protocol: Analysis and applications., EUROCRYPT(2), 9057 (2015), 281-310. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-46803-6_10. Google Scholar

[14]

F. Gierschner, Bitcoin and beyond.Google Scholar

[15]

M. Han, Z. Duan and Y. Li, Privacy issues for transportation cyber physical systems, in Secure and Trustworthy Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems, Springer, Singapore, 2017, 67–86. doi: 10.1007/978-981-10-3892-1_4. Google Scholar

[16]

M. Han, J. Li, Z. Cai and Q. Han, Privacy reserved influence maximization in gps-enabled cyber-physical and online social networks, in 2016 IEEE International Conferences on Social Computing and Networking (SocialCom), IEEE, 2016, 284–292. doi: 10.1109/BDCloud-SocialCom-SustainCom.2016.51. Google Scholar

[17]

M. Han, M. Yan, J. Li, S. Ji and Y. Li, Generating uncertain networks based on historical network snapshots, in International Computing and Combinatorics Conference, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013, 747–758. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-38768-5_68. Google Scholar

[18]

M. HanM. YanJ. LiS. Ji and Y. Li, Neighborhood-based uncertainty generation in social networks, Journal of Combinatorial Optimization, 28 (2014), 561-576. doi: 10.1007/s10878-013-9684-y. Google Scholar

[19]

Z. HeZ. Cai and J. Yu, Latent-data privacy preserving with customized data utility for social network data, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 67 (2018), 665-673. doi: 10.1109/TVT.2017.2738018. Google Scholar

[20]

Z. HeZ. CaiJ. YuX. WangY. Sun and Y. Li, Cost-efficient strategies for restraining rumor spreading in mobile social networks, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 66 (2017), 2789-2800. doi: 10.1109/TVT.2016.2585591. Google Scholar

[21]

H. Heinecke, K. -P. Schnelle, H. Fennel, J. Bortolazzi, L. Lundh, J. Leflour, J. -L. Maté, K. Nishikawa and T. Scharnhorst, Automotive Open System Architecture-An Industry-Wide Initiative to Manage the Complexity of Emerging Automotive E/E-Architectures, Technical report, SAE Technical Paper, 2004.Google Scholar

[22]

S. Ji, Z. Cai, M. Han and R. Beyah, Whitespace measurement and virtual backbone construction for cognitive radio networks: From the social perspective, in Sensing, Communication, and Networking (SECON), 2015 12th Annual IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2015, 435–443. doi: 10.1109/SAHCN.2015.7338344. Google Scholar

[23]

P. Jin Ho and P. Jong Hyuk, Blockchain security in cloud computing: Use cases, challenges, and solutions., Symmetry (20738994), 9 (2017), 1-13. Google Scholar

[24]

A. Kiayias and G. Panagiotakos, Speed-security tradeoffs in blockchain protocols, IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2015 (2015), 1019.Google Scholar

[25]

V. King and J. Saia, Scalable byzantine computation, ACM SIGACT News, 41 (2010), 89-104. doi: 10.1145/1855118.1855136. Google Scholar

[26]

K. Korpela, J. Hallikas and T. Dahlberg, Digital supply chain transformation toward blockchain integration, in Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2017, 10pp. doi: 10.24251/HICSS.2017.506. Google Scholar

[27]

R. Kotla, L. Alvisi, M. Dahlin, A. Clement and E. Wong, Zyzzyva: Speculative byzantine fault tolerance, in ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, ACM, 41 (2007), 45–58. doi: 10.1145/1294261.1294267. Google Scholar

[28]

D. Larimer, Delegated proof-of-stake white paper, 2014.Google Scholar

[29]

D. Larimer, Transactions as proof-of-stake, 2013.Google Scholar

[30]

J. LiZ. CaiJ. WangM. Han and Y. Li, Truthful incentive mechanisms for geographical position conflicting mobile crowdsensing systems, IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems, (2018), 1-11. doi: 10.1109/TCSS.2018.2797225. Google Scholar

[31]

X. Li, P. Jiang, T. Chen, X. Luo and Q. Wen, A survey on the security of blockchain systems, Future Generation Computer Systems (2017), URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167739X17318332.

10.1016/j.future.2017.08.020Google Scholar

[32]

X. Liang, J. Zhao, S. Shetty and D. Li, Towards data assurance and resilience in iot using blockchain, in Military Communications Conference (MILCOM), MILCOM 2017-2017 IEEE, IEEE, 2017, 261–266. doi: 10.1109/MILCOM.2017.8170858. Google Scholar

[33]

I.-C. Lin and T.-C. Liao, A survey of blockchain security issues and challenges., IJ Network Security, 19 (2017), 653-659. Google Scholar

[34]

L. A. Linn and M. B. Koo, Blockchain for health data and its potential use in health it and health care related research, in ONC/NIST Use of Blockchain for Healthcare and Research Workshop. Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States: ONC/NIST, 2016.Google Scholar

[35]

L. Luu, V. Narayanan, K. Baweja, C. Zheng, S. Gilbert and P. Saxena, Scp: A computationally-scalable byzantine consensus protocol for blockchains., IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2015 (2015), 1168.Google Scholar

[36]

D. Mazieres, The stellar consensus protocol: A federated model for internet-level consensus, Stellar Development Foundation.Google Scholar

[37]

J. Mendling, I. Weber, W. V. D. Aalst, J. V. Brocke, C. Cabanillas, F. Daniel, S. Debois, C. D. Ciccio, M. Dumas, S. Dustdar et al., Blockchains for business process management-challenges and opportunities, ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems (TMIS), 9 (2018), Article No. 4. doi: 10.1145/3183367. Google Scholar

[38]

M. Moser, Anonymity of bitcoin transactions.Google Scholar

[39]

M. Pilkington, Blockchain technology: Principles and applications, Browser Download This Paper.Google Scholar

[40]

M. Steger, C. Boano, M. Karner, J. Hillebrand, W. Rom and K. Römer, Secup: Secure and efficient wireless software updates for vehicles, in Digital System Design (DSD), 2016 Euromicro Conference on, IEEE, 2016, 628–636. doi: 10.1109/DSD.2016.11. Google Scholar

[41]

K. Suankaewmanee, D. T. Hoang, D. Niyato, S. Sawadsitang, P. Wang and Z. Han, Performance analysis and application of mobile blockchain, arXiv preprint, arXiv: 1712.03659.Google Scholar

[42]

T. Swanson, Consensus-as-a-service: A brief report on the emergence of permissioned, distributed ledger systems, Report, available online, Apr.Google Scholar

[43]

D. Tapscott and A. Tapscott, Blockchain.Google Scholar

[44]

W. Tirenin and D. Faatz, A concept for strategic cyber defense, in Military Communications Conference Proceedings, 1999. MILCOM 1999. IEEE, vol. 1, IEEE, 1999, 458–463. doi: 10.1109/MILCOM.1999.822725. Google Scholar

[45]

F. Tschorsch and B. Scheuermann, Bitcoin and beyond: A technical survey on decentralized digital currencies, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 18 (2016), 2084-2123. doi: 10.1109/COMST.2016.2535718. Google Scholar

[46]

D. Verma, N. Desai, A. Preece and I. J. Taylor, A blockchain based architecture for asset management in coalition operations, SPIE, 2017.Google Scholar

[47]

V. Vishumurthy, S. Chandrakumar and E. G. Sirer, Karma: A secure economic framework for peer-to-peer resource sharing, in Proceedings of the 2003 Workshop on Economics of Peer-to-Peer Systems, Berkeley CA, 2003.Google Scholar

[48]

M. Vukolić, The quest for scalable blockchain fabric: Proof-of-work vs. bft replication, in International Workshop on Open Problems in Network Security, Springer, 2015, 112–125.Google Scholar

[49]

Y. WangZ. CaiX. TongY. Gao and G. Yin, Truthful incentive mechanism with location privacy-preserving for mobile crowdsourcing systems, Computer Networks, 135 (2018), 32-43. doi: 10.1016/j.comnet.2018.02.008. Google Scholar

[50]

G. Wood, Ethereum: A secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger, Ethereum Project Yellow Paper, 151 (2014), 1-32. Google Scholar

[51]

Z. Xiong, S. Feng, D. Niyato, P. Wang and Z. Han, Edge computing resource management and pricing for mobile blockchain, arXiv preprint, arXiv: 1710.01567.Google Scholar

[52]

X. Xu, I. Weber, M. Staples, L. Zhu, J. Bosch, L. Bass, C. Pautasso and P. Rimba, A taxonomy of blockchain-based systems for architecture design, in Software Architecture (ICSA), 2017 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2017, 243–252.Google Scholar

[53]

L. ZhangZ. Cai and X. Wang, Fakemask: a novel privacy preserving approach for smartphones, IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, 13 (2016), 335-348. Google Scholar

[54]

X. Zheng, Z. Cai, J. Li and H. Gao, Location-privacy-aware review publication mechanism for local business service systems, in INFOCOM 2017-IEEE Conference on Computer Communications, IEEE, IEEE, 2017, 1–9.Google Scholar

[55]

X. Zheng, Z. Cai and Y. Li, Data linkage in smart iot systems: A consideration from privacy perspective., IEEE Communications Magazine.Google Scholar

[56]

X. Zheng, G. Luo and Z. Cai, A fair mechanism for private data publication in online social networks, IEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering.Google Scholar

[57]

Z. Zheng, S. Xie, H. -N. Dai and H. Wang, Blockchain challenges and opportunities: A survey, Work Pap.Google Scholar

[58]

Z. Zheng, S. Xie, H. Dai, X. Chen and H. Wang, An overview of blockchain technology: Architecture, consensus, and future trends, in Big Data (BigData Congress), 2017 IEEE International Congress on, IEEE, 2017, 557–564.Google Scholar

[59]

G. Zyskind, O. Nathan et al., Decentralizing privacy: Using blockchain to protect personal data, in Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW), 2015 IEEE, IEEE, 2015, 180–184.Google Scholar

Figure 1.  Illustration of Blockchain Elements
Figure 2.  Blockchain Structure
Figure 3.  Consensus Algorithms
Figure 4.  Types of Blockchains
Figure 5.  Pattern Representation of Blockchain Types
Figure 6.  Aspects of Blockchain
Figure 7.  Areas of Application of the Blockchain Technology
Figure 8.  Blockchain in Financial Transactions
Figure 9.  Blockchain in Healthcare Transactions
Figure 10.  Blockchain in Internet of Things
Figure 11.  Blockchain in Mobile Applications
Figure 12.  Blockchain in Automobile Applications
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