# American Institute of Mathematical Sciences

June  2016, 6(2): 293-334. doi: 10.3934/mcrf.2016005

## An optimal control approach to ciliary locomotion

 1 Departamento de Ingeniería Matemática, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 170/3 - Correo 3, Santiago, Chile 2 Inria, Villers-les-Nancy F-54600, France 3 Institut de Mathématiques de Bordeaux, Université de Bordeaux/CNRS/ Institut National Polytechnique de Bordeaux, 351 Cours de Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex, France

Received  February 2015 Revised  July 2015 Published  April 2016

We consider a class of low Reynolds number swimmers, of prolate spheroidal shape, which can be seen as simplified models of ciliated microorganisms. Within this model, the form of the swimmer does not change, the propelling mechanism consisting in tangential displacements of the material points of swimmer's boundary. Using explicit formulas for the solution of the Stokes equations at the exterior of a translating prolate spheroid the governing equations reduce to a system of ODE's with the control acting in some of its coefficients (bilinear control system). The main theoretical result asserts the exact controllability of the prolate spheroidal swimmer. In the same geometrical situation, we consider the optimal control problem of maximizing the efficiency during a stroke and we prove the existence of a maximum. We also provide a method to compute an approximation of the efficiency by using explicit formulas for the Stokes system at the exterior of a prolate spheroid, with some particular tangential velocities at the fluid-solid interface. We analyze the sensitivity of this efficiency with respect to the eccentricity of the considered spheroid and show that for small positive eccentricity, the efficiency of a prolate spheroid is better than the efficiency of a sphere. Finally, we use numerical optimization tools to investigate the dependence of the efficiency on the number of inputs and on the eccentricity of the spheroid. The best'' numerical result obtained yields an efficiency of $30.66\%$ with $13$ scalar inputs. In the limiting case of a sphere our best numerically obtained efficiency is of $30.4\%$, whereas the best computed efficiency previously reported in the literature is of $22\%$.
Citation: Jorge San Martín, Takéo Takahashi, Marius Tucsnak. An optimal control approach to ciliary locomotion. Mathematical Control & Related Fields, 2016, 6 (2) : 293-334. doi: 10.3934/mcrf.2016005
##### References:
 [1] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables,, vol. 55 of National Bureau of Standards Applied Mathematics Series, (1964). Google Scholar [2] F. Alouges, A. DeSimone and L. Heltai, Numerical strategies for stroke optimization of axisymmetric microswimmers,, Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci., 21 (2011), 361. doi: 10.1142/S0218202511005088. Google Scholar [3] F. Alouges, A. DeSimone and A. Lefebvre, Biological fluid dynamics, nonlinear partial differential equations,, in Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, (2009), 548. Google Scholar [4] F. Alouges, A. DeSimone and A. Lefebvre, Optimal strokes for axisymetric microswimmers,, Eur. Phys. J. E., 28 (2009), 279. Google Scholar [5] F. Alouges and L. Giraldi, Enhanced controllability of low Reynolds number swimmers in the presence of a wall,, Acta Appl. Math., 128 (2013), 153. doi: 10.1007/s10440-013-9824-5. Google Scholar [6] J. R. Blake, A spherical envelope approch to ciliary propulsion,, J. Fluid Mech., 46 (1971), 199. Google Scholar [7] T. Chambrion and A. Munnier, Locomotion and control of a self-propelled shape-changing body in a fluid,, J. Nonlinear Sci., 21 (2011), 325. doi: 10.1007/s00332-010-9084-8. Google Scholar [8] _________, Generic controllability of 3D swimmers in a perfect fluid,, SIAM J. Control Optim., 50 (2012), 2814. Google Scholar [9] S. Childress, Mechanics of Swimming and Flying,, vol. 2 of Cambridge Studies in Mathematical Biology, (1981). Google Scholar [10] J.-M. Coron, Control and Nonlinearity,, vol. 136 of Mathematical Surveys and Monographs, (2007). Google Scholar [11] G. Dassios, M. Hadjinicolaou and A. C. Payatakes, Generalized eigenfunctions and complete semiseparable solutions for Stokes flow in spheroidal coordinates,, Quart. Appl. Math., 52 (1994), 157. Google Scholar [12] G. P. Galdi, An Introduction to the Mathematical Theory of the Navier-Stokes Equations,, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-09620-9. Google Scholar [13] D. Gérard-Varet and L. Giraldi, Rough wall effect on micro-swimmers,, ESAIM Control Optim. Calc. Var., 21 (2015), 757. doi: 10.1051/cocv/2014046. Google Scholar [14] J. Happel and H. Brenner, Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics with Special Applications to Particulate Media,, Prentice-Hall Inc., (1965). Google Scholar [15] T. Ishikawa, M. P. Simmonds and T. J. Pedley, Hydrodynamic interaction of two swimming model micro-organisms,, J. Fluid Mech., 568 (2006), 119. doi: 10.1017/S0022112006002631. Google Scholar [16] V. Jurdjevic, Geometric Control Theory,, vol. 52 of Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics, (1997). Google Scholar [17] E. Kanso, J. E. Marsden, C. W. Rowley and J. B. Melli-Huber, Locomotion of articulated bodies in a perfect fluid,, J. Nonlinear Sci., 15 (2005), 255. doi: 10.1007/s00332-004-0650-9. Google Scholar [18] E. Lauga and T. Powers, The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms,, Rep. Prog. Phys., 72 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0034-4885/72/9/096601. Google Scholar [19] J. Lohéac and A. Munnier, Controllability of 3D low Reynolds number swimmers,, ESAIM Control Optim. Calc. Var., 20 (2014), 236. doi: 10.1051/cocv/2013063. Google Scholar [20] J. Lohéac and J.-F. Scheid, Time optimal control for a nonholonomic system with state constraint,, Math. Control Relat. Fields, 3 (2013), 185. doi: 10.3934/mcrf.2013.3.185. Google Scholar [21] J. Lohéac, J.-F. Scheid and M. Tucsnak, Controllability and time optimal control for low Reynolds numbers swimmers,, Acta Appl. Math., 123 (2013), 175. doi: 10.1007/s10440-012-9760-9. Google Scholar [22] S. Michelin and E. Lauga, Efficiency optimization and symmetry-breaking in a model of ciliary locomotion,, Physics of Fluids, 22 (2010). doi: 10.1063/1.3507951. Google Scholar [23] A. Munnier, On the self-displacement of deformable bodies in a potential fluid flow,, Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci., 18 (2008), 1945. doi: 10.1142/S021820250800325X. Google Scholar [24] A. Munnier and B. Pinçon, Locomotion of articulated bodies in an ideal fluid: 2D model with buoyancy, circulation and collisions,, Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci., 20 (2010), 1899. doi: 10.1142/S0218202510004829. Google Scholar [25] J. San Martín, T. Takahashi and M. Tucsnak, A control theoretic approach to the swimming of microscopic organisms,, Quart. Appl. Math., 65 (2007), 405. doi: 10.1090/S0033-569X-07-01045-9. Google Scholar [26] A. Shapere and F. Wilczek, Efficiencies of self-propulsion at low Reynolds number,, J. Fluid. Mech., 198 (1989), 587. doi: 10.1017/S0022112089000261. Google Scholar [27] M. Sigalotti and J.-C. Vivalda, Controllability properties of a class of systems modeling swimming microscopic organisms,, ESAIM Control Optim. Calc. Var., 16 (2010), 1053. doi: 10.1051/cocv/2009034. Google Scholar [28] J. Simon, Compact sets in the space $L^p(0,T;B)$,, Ann. Mat. Pura Appl. (4), 146 (1987), 65. doi: 10.1007/BF01762360. Google Scholar [29] G. Taylor, Analysis of the swimming of microscopic organisms,, Proc. Roy. Soc. London. Ser. A., 209 (1951), 447. doi: 10.1098/rspa.1951.0218. Google Scholar [30] E. Trélat, Contrôle Optimal, Mathématiques Concrètes. [Concrete Mathematics], Vuibert, Paris, 2005., Théorie & applications. [Theory and applications]., (). Google Scholar [31] A. Wächter and L. T. Biegler, on the implementation of a primal-dual interior point filter line search algorithm for large-scale nonlinear programming,, Mathematical Programming, 106 (2006), 25. Google Scholar [32] E. T. Whittaker and G. N. Watson, A Course of Modern Analysis,, Cambridge Mathematical Library, (1996). doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511608759. Google Scholar

show all references

##### References:
 [1] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables,, vol. 55 of National Bureau of Standards Applied Mathematics Series, (1964). Google Scholar [2] F. Alouges, A. DeSimone and L. Heltai, Numerical strategies for stroke optimization of axisymmetric microswimmers,, Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci., 21 (2011), 361. doi: 10.1142/S0218202511005088. Google Scholar [3] F. Alouges, A. DeSimone and A. Lefebvre, Biological fluid dynamics, nonlinear partial differential equations,, in Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, (2009), 548. Google Scholar [4] F. Alouges, A. DeSimone and A. Lefebvre, Optimal strokes for axisymetric microswimmers,, Eur. Phys. J. E., 28 (2009), 279. Google Scholar [5] F. Alouges and L. Giraldi, Enhanced controllability of low Reynolds number swimmers in the presence of a wall,, Acta Appl. Math., 128 (2013), 153. doi: 10.1007/s10440-013-9824-5. Google Scholar [6] J. R. Blake, A spherical envelope approch to ciliary propulsion,, J. Fluid Mech., 46 (1971), 199. Google Scholar [7] T. Chambrion and A. Munnier, Locomotion and control of a self-propelled shape-changing body in a fluid,, J. Nonlinear Sci., 21 (2011), 325. doi: 10.1007/s00332-010-9084-8. Google Scholar [8] _________, Generic controllability of 3D swimmers in a perfect fluid,, SIAM J. Control Optim., 50 (2012), 2814. Google Scholar [9] S. Childress, Mechanics of Swimming and Flying,, vol. 2 of Cambridge Studies in Mathematical Biology, (1981). Google Scholar [10] J.-M. Coron, Control and Nonlinearity,, vol. 136 of Mathematical Surveys and Monographs, (2007). Google Scholar [11] G. Dassios, M. Hadjinicolaou and A. C. Payatakes, Generalized eigenfunctions and complete semiseparable solutions for Stokes flow in spheroidal coordinates,, Quart. Appl. Math., 52 (1994), 157. Google Scholar [12] G. P. Galdi, An Introduction to the Mathematical Theory of the Navier-Stokes Equations,, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-09620-9. Google Scholar [13] D. Gérard-Varet and L. Giraldi, Rough wall effect on micro-swimmers,, ESAIM Control Optim. Calc. Var., 21 (2015), 757. doi: 10.1051/cocv/2014046. Google Scholar [14] J. Happel and H. Brenner, Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics with Special Applications to Particulate Media,, Prentice-Hall Inc., (1965). Google Scholar [15] T. Ishikawa, M. P. Simmonds and T. J. Pedley, Hydrodynamic interaction of two swimming model micro-organisms,, J. Fluid Mech., 568 (2006), 119. doi: 10.1017/S0022112006002631. Google Scholar [16] V. Jurdjevic, Geometric Control Theory,, vol. 52 of Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics, (1997). Google Scholar [17] E. Kanso, J. E. Marsden, C. W. Rowley and J. B. Melli-Huber, Locomotion of articulated bodies in a perfect fluid,, J. Nonlinear Sci., 15 (2005), 255. doi: 10.1007/s00332-004-0650-9. Google Scholar [18] E. Lauga and T. Powers, The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms,, Rep. Prog. Phys., 72 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0034-4885/72/9/096601. Google Scholar [19] J. Lohéac and A. Munnier, Controllability of 3D low Reynolds number swimmers,, ESAIM Control Optim. Calc. Var., 20 (2014), 236. doi: 10.1051/cocv/2013063. Google Scholar [20] J. Lohéac and J.-F. Scheid, Time optimal control for a nonholonomic system with state constraint,, Math. Control Relat. Fields, 3 (2013), 185. doi: 10.3934/mcrf.2013.3.185. Google Scholar [21] J. Lohéac, J.-F. Scheid and M. Tucsnak, Controllability and time optimal control for low Reynolds numbers swimmers,, Acta Appl. Math., 123 (2013), 175. doi: 10.1007/s10440-012-9760-9. Google Scholar [22] S. Michelin and E. Lauga, Efficiency optimization and symmetry-breaking in a model of ciliary locomotion,, Physics of Fluids, 22 (2010). doi: 10.1063/1.3507951. Google Scholar [23] A. Munnier, On the self-displacement of deformable bodies in a potential fluid flow,, Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci., 18 (2008), 1945. doi: 10.1142/S021820250800325X. Google Scholar [24] A. Munnier and B. Pinçon, Locomotion of articulated bodies in an ideal fluid: 2D model with buoyancy, circulation and collisions,, Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci., 20 (2010), 1899. doi: 10.1142/S0218202510004829. Google Scholar [25] J. San Martín, T. Takahashi and M. Tucsnak, A control theoretic approach to the swimming of microscopic organisms,, Quart. Appl. Math., 65 (2007), 405. doi: 10.1090/S0033-569X-07-01045-9. Google Scholar [26] A. Shapere and F. Wilczek, Efficiencies of self-propulsion at low Reynolds number,, J. Fluid. Mech., 198 (1989), 587. doi: 10.1017/S0022112089000261. Google Scholar [27] M. Sigalotti and J.-C. Vivalda, Controllability properties of a class of systems modeling swimming microscopic organisms,, ESAIM Control Optim. Calc. Var., 16 (2010), 1053. doi: 10.1051/cocv/2009034. Google Scholar [28] J. Simon, Compact sets in the space $L^p(0,T;B)$,, Ann. Mat. Pura Appl. (4), 146 (1987), 65. doi: 10.1007/BF01762360. Google Scholar [29] G. Taylor, Analysis of the swimming of microscopic organisms,, Proc. Roy. Soc. London. Ser. A., 209 (1951), 447. doi: 10.1098/rspa.1951.0218. Google Scholar [30] E. Trélat, Contrôle Optimal, Mathématiques Concrètes. [Concrete Mathematics], Vuibert, Paris, 2005., Théorie & applications. [Theory and applications]., (). Google Scholar [31] A. Wächter and L. T. Biegler, on the implementation of a primal-dual interior point filter line search algorithm for large-scale nonlinear programming,, Mathematical Programming, 106 (2006), 25. Google Scholar [32] E. T. Whittaker and G. N. Watson, A Course of Modern Analysis,, Cambridge Mathematical Library, (1996). doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511608759. Google Scholar
 [1] George Avalos, Roberto Triggiani. Semigroup well-posedness in the energy space of a parabolic-hyperbolic coupled Stokes-Lamé PDE system of fluid-structure interaction. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - S, 2009, 2 (3) : 417-447. doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2009.2.417 [2] Qiang Du, M. D. Gunzburger, L. S. Hou, J. Lee. Analysis of a linear fluid-structure interaction problem. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2003, 9 (3) : 633-650. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2003.9.633 [3] Andro Mikelić, Giovanna Guidoboni, Sunčica Čanić. Fluid-structure interaction in a pre-stressed tube with thick elastic walls I: the stationary Stokes problem. Networks & Heterogeneous Media, 2007, 2 (3) : 397-423. doi: 10.3934/nhm.2007.2.397 [4] Henry Jacobs, Joris Vankerschaver. Fluid-structure interaction in the Lagrange-Poincaré formalism: The Navier-Stokes and inviscid regimes. Journal of Geometric Mechanics, 2014, 6 (1) : 39-66. doi: 10.3934/jgm.2014.6.39 [5] George Avalos, Roberto Triggiani. Uniform stabilization of a coupled PDE system arising in fluid-structure interaction with boundary dissipation at the interface. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2008, 22 (4) : 817-833. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2008.22.817 [6] Grégoire Allaire, Alessandro Ferriero. Homogenization and long time asymptotic of a fluid-structure interaction problem. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 2008, 9 (2) : 199-220. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2008.9.199 [7] Serge Nicaise, Cristina Pignotti. Asymptotic analysis of a simple model of fluid-structure interaction. Networks & Heterogeneous Media, 2008, 3 (4) : 787-813. doi: 10.3934/nhm.2008.3.787 [8] Igor Kukavica, Amjad Tuffaha. Solutions to a fluid-structure interaction free boundary problem. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2012, 32 (4) : 1355-1389. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2012.32.1355 [9] George Avalos, Roberto Triggiani. Fluid-structure interaction with and without internal dissipation of the structure: A contrast study in stability. Evolution Equations & Control Theory, 2013, 2 (4) : 563-598. doi: 10.3934/eect.2013.2.563 [10] Oualid Kafi, Nader El Khatib, Jorge Tiago, Adélia Sequeira. Numerical simulations of a 3D fluid-structure interaction model for blood flow in an atherosclerotic artery. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2017, 14 (1) : 179-193. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2017012 [11] Salim Meddahi, David Mora. Nonconforming mixed finite element approximation of a fluid-structure interaction spectral problem. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - S, 2016, 9 (1) : 269-287. doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2016.9.269 [12] Martina Bukač, Sunčica Čanić. Longitudinal displacement in viscoelastic arteries: A novel fluid-structure interaction computational model, and experimental validation. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2013, 10 (2) : 295-318. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2013.10.295 [13] Mehdi Badra, Takéo Takahashi. Feedback boundary stabilization of 2d fluid-structure interaction systems. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2017, 37 (5) : 2315-2373. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2017102 [14] George Avalos, Thomas J. Clark. A mixed variational formulation for the wellposedness and numerical approximation of a PDE model arising in a 3-D fluid-structure interaction. Evolution Equations & Control Theory, 2014, 3 (4) : 557-578. doi: 10.3934/eect.2014.3.557 [15] Lorena Bociu, Lucas Castle, Kristina Martin, Daniel Toundykov. Optimal control in a free boundary fluid-elasticity interaction. Conference Publications, 2015, 2015 (special) : 122-131. doi: 10.3934/proc.2015.0122 [16] Eugenio Aulisa, Akif Ibragimov, Emine Yasemen Kaya-Cekin. Fluid structure interaction problem with changing thickness beam and slightly compressible fluid. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - S, 2014, 7 (6) : 1133-1148. doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2014.7.1133 [17] Daniele Boffi, Lucia Gastaldi. Discrete models for fluid-structure interactions: The finite element Immersed Boundary Method. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - S, 2016, 9 (1) : 89-107. doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2016.9.89 [18] Emine Kaya, Eugenio Aulisa, Akif Ibragimov, Padmanabhan Seshaiyer. A stability estimate for fluid structure interaction problem with non-linear beam. Conference Publications, 2009, 2009 (Special) : 424-432. doi: 10.3934/proc.2009.2009.424 [19] Emine Kaya, Eugenio Aulisa, Akif Ibragimov, Padmanabhan Seshaiyer. FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEM WITH CHANGING THICKNESS NON-LINEAR BEAM Fluid structure interaction problem with changing thickness non-linear beam. Conference Publications, 2011, 2011 (Special) : 813-823. doi: 10.3934/proc.2011.2011.813 [20] Changjie Fang, Weimin Han. Well-posedness and optimal control of a hemivariational inequality for nonstationary Stokes fluid flow. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2016, 36 (10) : 5369-5386. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2016036

2018 Impact Factor: 1.292