# American Institute of Mathematical Sciences

September  2006, 16(3): 587-614. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2006.16.587

## Pullback attractors of nonautonomous dynamical systems

 1 School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China, China 2 Department of Mathematics, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200436, China

Received  January 2006 Revised  August 2006 Published  August 2006

We present the necessary and sufficient conditions and a new method to study the existence of pullback attractors of nonautonomous infinite dimensional dynamical systems. For illustrating our method, we apply it to nonautonomous 2D Navier-Stokes systems. We also show that the parametrically inflated pullback attractors and uniform attractors are robust with respect to the perturbations of both cocycle mappings and driving systems. As an example, we consider the nonautonomous 2D Navier-Stokes system with rapidly oscillating external force.
Citation: Yejuan Wang, Chengkui Zhong, Shengfan Zhou. Pullback attractors of nonautonomous dynamical systems. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2006, 16 (3) : 587-614. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2006.16.587
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