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In this paper, we investigate the cost of immunological up- regulation caused by infection in a between-host transmission dynamical model with superinfection. After introducing a mutant host to an existing model, we explore this problem in (A) monomorphic case and (B) dimorphic case. For (A), we assume that only strain 1 parasite can infect the mutant host. We identify an appropriate fitness for the invasion of the mutant host by analyzing the local stability of the mutant free equilibrium. After specifying a trade-off between the production and recovery rates of infected hosts, we employ the adaptive dynamical approach to analyze the evolutionary and convergence stabilities of the corresponding singular strategy, leading to some conditions for continuously stable strategy, evolutionary branching point and repeller. For (B), a new fitness is introduced to measure the invasion of mutant host under the assumption that both parasite strains can infect the mutant host. By considering two trade-off functions, we can study the conditions for evolutionary stability, isoclinic stability and absolute convergence stability of the singular strategy. Our results show that the host evolution would not favour high degree of immunological up-regulation; moreover, superinfection would help the parasite with weaker virulence persist in hosts.

We propose and analyse a reaction-diffusion-advection predator-prey model in which we assume that predators move randomly but prey avoid predation by perceiving a repulsion along predator density gradient. Based on recent experimental evidence that anti-predator behaviors alone lead to a 40% reduction on prey reproduction rate, we also incorporate the cost of anti-predator responses into the local reaction terms in the model. Sufficient and necessary conditions of spatial pattern formation are obtained for various functional responses between prey and predators. By mathematical and numerical analyses, we find that small prey sensitivity to predation risk may lead to pattern formation if the Holling type Ⅱ functional response or the Beddington-DeAngelis functional response is adopted while large cost of anti-predator behaviors homogenises the system by excluding pattern formation. However, the ratio-dependent functional response gives an opposite result where large predator-taxis may lead to pattern formation but small cost of anti-predator behaviors inhibits the emergence of spatial heterogeneous solutions.

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