An adaptive finite element method in $L^2$-TV-based image denoising
Michael Hintermüller Monserrat Rincon-Camacho
The first order optimality system of a total variation regularization based variational model with $L^2$-data-fitting in image denoising ($L^2$-TV problem) can be expressed as an elliptic variational inequality of the second kind. For a finite element discretization of the variational inequality problem, an a posteriori error residual based error estimator is derived and its reliability and (partial) efficiency are established. The results are applied to solve the $L^2$-TV problem by means of the adaptive finite element method. The adaptive mesh refinement relies on the newly derived a posteriori error estimator and on an additional heuristic providing a local variance estimator to cope with noisy data. The numerical solution of the discrete problem on each level of refinement is obtained by a superlinearly convergent algorithm based on Fenchel-duality and inexact semismooth Newton techniques and which is stable with respect to noise in the data. Numerical results justifying the advantage of adaptive finite elements solutions are presented.
keywords: A posteriori error estimation primal-dual method adaptive finite elements semismooth Newton method. elliptic variational inequality of the second kind total variation
A nonlinear multigrid solver with line Gauss-Seidel-semismooth-Newton smoother for the Fenchel pre-dual in total variation based image restoration
Ke Chen Yiqiu Dong Michael Hintermüller
Based on the Fenchel pre-dual of the total variation model, a nonlinear multigrid algorithm for image denoising is proposed. Due to the structure of the differential operator involved in the Euler-Lagrange equations of the dual models, line Gauss-Seidel-semismooth-Newton step is utilized as the smoother, which provides rather good smoothing rates. The paper ends with a report on numerical results and a comparison with a very recent nonlinear multigrid solver based on Chambolle's iteration [6].
keywords: multigrid method. Image restoration total variation regularization duality
Bilevel optimization for calibrating point spread functions in blind deconvolution
Michael Hintermüller Tao Wu
Blind deconvolution problems arise in many imaging modalities, where both the underlying point spread function, which parameterizes the convolution operator, and the source image need to be identified. In this work, a novel bilevel optimization approach to blind deconvolution is proposed. The lower-level problem refers to the minimization of a total-variation model, as is typically done in non-blind image deconvolution. The upper-level objective takes into account additional statistical information depending on the particular imaging modality. Bilevel problems of such type are investigated systematically. Analytical properties of the lower-level solution mapping are established based on Robinson's strong regularity condition. Furthermore, several stationarity conditions are derived from the variational geometry induced by the lower-level problem. Numerically, a projected-gradient-type method is employed to obtain a Clarke-type stationary point and its convergence properties are analyzed. We also implement an efficient version of the proposed algorithm and test it through the experiments on point spread function calibration and multiframe blind deconvolution.
keywords: projected gradient method. bilevel optimization blind deconvolution Image processing mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints

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