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We show that a well known lemma concerning conditions equivalent to topological transitivity is false when posed in a setting that is too general. We also explore some ways of remedying this problem.
keywords: Topological dynamics.
Topological transitivity, weak mixing and non-wandering are definitions used in topological dynamics to describe the ways in which open sets feed into each other under iteration. Using finite directed graphs, these definitions are generalized to obtain topological mapping properties. The extent to which these mapping properties are logically distinct is examined. There are three distinct properties which entail "interesting" dynamics. Two of these, transitivity and weak mixing, are already well known. The third does notappear in the literature but turns out to be close to weak mixing in a sense to be discussed. The remaining properties comprise a countably infinite collection of distinct properties entailing somewhat less interesting dynamics and including non-wandering.
Spacing subshifts were introduced by Lau and Zame in 1973 to provide accessible examples of maps that are (topologically) weakly mixing but not mixing. Although they show a rich variety of dynamical characteristics, they have received little subsequent attention in the dynamical systems literature. This paper is a systematic study of their dynamical properties and shows that they may be used to provide examples of dynamical systems with a huge range of interesting dynamical behaviors. In a later paper we propose to consider in more detail the case when spacing subshifts are also sofic and transitive.
Spacing shifts were introduced by Lau and Zame in the 1970's to provide accessible examples of maps that are weakly mixing but not mixing. In previous papers by the authors and others, it has been observed that the problem of describing when spacing shifts are topologically transitive appears to be quite difficult in general. In the present paper, we give a characterization of sofic spacing shifts and begin to investigate which sofic spacing shifts are topologically transitive. We show that the canonical graph presentation of such a shift has a rather simple form, for which we introduce the terminology hereditary bunched cycle and discuss the apparently difficult problem of determining which hereditary bunched cycles actually present spacing shifts.
We develop statistical and mathematical based methodologies for determining (as the experiment progresses) the amount of information required to complete the estimation of stable population parameters with pre-specified levels of confidence. We do this in the context of life table models and data for growth/death for three species of Daphniids as investigated by J. Stark and J. Banks . The ideas developed here also have wide application in the health and social sciences where experimental data are often expensive as well as difficult to obtain.
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