DCDS
Analysis of the 3DVAR filter for the partially observed Lorenz'63 model
Kody Law Abhishek Shukla Andrew Stuart
The problem of effectively combining data with a mathematical model constitutes a major challenge in applied mathematics. It is particular challenging for high-dimensional dynamical systems where data is received sequentially in time and the objective is to estimate the system state in an on-line fashion; this situation arises, for example, in weather forecasting. The sequential particle filter is then impractical and ad hoc filters, which employ some form of Gaussian approximation, are widely used. Prototypical of these ad hoc filters is the 3DVAR method. The goal of this paper is to analyze the 3DVAR method, using the Lorenz '63 model to exemplify the key ideas. The situation where the data is partial and noisy is studied, and both discrete time and continuous time data streams are considered. The theory demonstrates how the widely used technique of variance inflation acts to stabilize the filter, and hence leads to asymptotic accuracy.
keywords: Data assimilation synchronization stochastic dynamics.
IPI
Besov priors for Bayesian inverse problems
Masoumeh Dashti Stephen Harris Andrew Stuart
We consider the inverse problem of estimating a function $u$ from noisy, possibly nonlinear, observations. We adopt a Bayesian approach to the problem. This approach has a long history for inversion, dating back to 1970, and has, over the last decade, gained importance as a practical tool. However most of the existing theory has been developed for Gaussian prior measures. Recently Lassas, Saksman and Siltanen (Inv. Prob. Imag. 2009) showed how to construct Besov prior measures, based on wavelet expansions with random coefficients, and used these prior measures to study linear inverse problems. In this paper we build on this development of Besov priors to include the case of nonlinear measurements. In doing so a key technical tool, established here, is a Fernique-like theorem for Besov measures. This theorem enables us to identify appropriate conditions on the forward solution operator which, when matched to properties of the prior Besov measure, imply the well-definedness and well-posedness of the posterior measure. We then consider the application of these results to the inverse problem of finding the diffusion coefficient of an elliptic partial differential equation, given noisy measurements of its solution.
keywords: elliptic inverse problems Bayesian approach Inverse problems Besov measures Fernique-like theorem.
IPI
The Bayesian formulation of EIT: Analysis and algorithms
Matthew M. Dunlop Andrew M. Stuart
We provide a rigorous Bayesian formulation of the EIT problem in an infinite dimensional setting, leading to well-posedness in the Hellinger metric with respect to the data. We focus particularly on the reconstruction of binary fields where the interface between different media is the primary unknown. We consider three different prior models -- log-Gaussian, star-shaped and level set. Numerical simulations based on the implementation of MCMC are performed, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of each type of prior in the reconstruction, in the case where the true conductivity is a binary field, and exhibiting the properties of the resulting posterior distribution.
keywords: Inverse problems Bayesian regularisation level set methodology. ill-posed problems electrical impedance tomography geometric priors

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