Inverse Problems and Imaging (IPI)

Locally sparse reconstruction using the $l^{1,\infty}$-norm

Pages: 1093 - 1137, Volume 9, Issue 4, November 2015      doi:10.3934/ipi.2015.9.1093

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Pia Heins - Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics, Einsteinstrasse 62, D 48149 Münster, Germany (email)
Michael Moeller - Technische Universität München, Department of Computer Science, Informatik 9, Boltzmannstrasse 3, D 85748 Garching, Germany (email)
Martin Burger - Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics, Einsteinstr. 62, D 48149 Münster, Germany (email)

Abstract: This paper discusses the incorporation of local sparsity information, e.g. in each pixel of an image, via minimization of the $\ell^{1,\infty}$-norm. We discuss the basic properties of this norm when used as a regularization functional and associated optimization problems, for which we derive equivalent reformulations either more amenable to theory or to numerical computation. Further focus of the analysis is put on the locally 1-sparse case, which is well motivated by some biomedical imaging applications.
    Our computational approaches are based on alternating direction methods of multipliers (ADMM) and appropriate splittings with augmented Lagrangians. Those are tested for a model scenario related to dynamic positron emission tomography (PET), which is a functional imaging technique in nuclear medicine.
    The results of this paper provide insight into the potential impact of regularization with the $\ell^{1,\infty}$-norm for local sparsity in appropriate settings. However, it also indicates several shortcomings, possibly related to the non-tightness of the functional as a relaxation of the $\ell^{0,\infty}$-norm.

Keywords:  Local sparsity, $\ell^{1,\infty}$-regularization, inverse problems, variational methods, mixed norms, compressed sensing.
Mathematics Subject Classification:  Primary: 65F50, 49N45; Secondary: 68U10.

Received: June 2014;      Revised: December 2014;      Available Online: October 2015.