# American Institute of Mathematical Sciences

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2004, 4(4): 1173-1202. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2004.4.1173

## Modelling the dynamics of endemic malaria in growing populations

 1 The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste 34100, Italy

Received  January 2003 Revised  March 2004 Published  August 2004

A mathematical model for endemic malaria involving variable human and mosquito populations is analysed. A threshold parameter $R_0$ exists and the disease can persist if and only if $R_0$ exceeds $1$. $R_0$ is seen to be a generalisation of the basic reproduction ratio associated with the Ross-Macdonald model for malaria transmission. The disease free equilibrium always exist and is globally stable when $R_0$ is below $1$. A perturbation analysis is used to approximate the endemic equilibrium in the important case where the disease related death rate is nonzero, small but significant. A diffusion approximation is used to approximate the quasi-stationary distribution of the associated stochastic model. Numerical simulations show that when $R_0$ is distinctly greater than $1$, the endemic deterministic equilibrium is globally stable. Furthermore, in quasi-stationarity, the stochastic process undergoes oscillations about a mean population whose size can be approximated by the stable endemic deterministic equilibrium.
Citation: G.A. Ngwa. Modelling the dynamics of endemic malaria in growing populations. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 2004, 4 (4) : 1173-1202. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2004.4.1173
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