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Inverse Problems & Imaging

May 2012 , Volume 6 , Issue 2

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An interpolation/extrapolation approach to X-ray imaging of solar flares
Silvia Allavena, Michele Piana, Federico Benvenuto and Anna Maria Massone
2012, 6(2): 147-162 doi: 10.3934/ipi.2012.6.147 +[Abstract](633) +[PDF](1539.1KB)
Abstract:
We describe an interpolation/extrapolation procedure that reconstructs X-ray maps of solar flares using as input data sparse samples of the Fourier transform of the radiation flux, named visibilities. The algorithm is based on two steps: in the first step the performance of an interpolation routine is optimized by representing the visibilities according to favorable coordinates in the frequency plane. In the second step two extrapolation schemes are introduced, respectively based on the projection and the thresholding of the Landweber iterative method. The procedure is validated against realistic synthetic visibilities and applied to experimental measurements provided by the NASA satellite Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI).
Uniqueness for an ill-posed reaction-dispersion model. Application to organic pollution in stream-waters
Faker Ben Belgacem
2012, 6(2): 163-181 doi: 10.3934/ipi.2012.6.163 +[Abstract](644) +[PDF](412.6KB)
Abstract:
We are concerned with the inverse problem of detecting sources in a coupled diffusion-reaction system. This problem arises from the Biochemical Oxygen Demand-Dissolved Oxygen model($^1$) governing the interaction between organic pollutants and the oxygen available in stream waters. The sources we consider are point-wise and simulate stationary or moving pollution sources. The ultimate objective is to obtain their discharge location and recover their output rate from accessible measurements of DO when BOD measurements are difficult and time consuming to obtain. It is, as a matter of fact, the most realistic configuration. The subject to address here is the identifiability of these sources, in other words to determine if the observations uniquely determine the sources. The key tool is the study of coupled parabolic systems derived after restricting the global model to regions at the exterior of the observations. The absence of any prescribed condition on the BOD density is compensated by data recorded on the DO which provide over-determined Cauchy boundary conditions. Now, the first step toward the identifiability of the sources is precisely to recover the BOD at the observation points (of DO). This may be achieved by handling and solving the coupled systems. Unsurprisingly, they turn out to be ill-posed. That issue is investigated first. Then, we state a uniqueness result owing to a suitable saddle-point variational framework and to Pazy's uniqueness Theorem. This uniqueness complemented by former identifiability results proved in [2011, Inverse problems] for scalar reaction-diffusion equations yields the desired identifiability for the global model.
Besov priors for Bayesian inverse problems
Masoumeh Dashti, Stephen Harris and Andrew Stuart
2012, 6(2): 183-200 doi: 10.3934/ipi.2012.6.183 +[Abstract](1066) +[PDF](438.4KB)
Abstract:
We consider the inverse problem of estimating a function $u$ from noisy, possibly nonlinear, observations. We adopt a Bayesian approach to the problem. This approach has a long history for inversion, dating back to 1970, and has, over the last decade, gained importance as a practical tool. However most of the existing theory has been developed for Gaussian prior measures. Recently Lassas, Saksman and Siltanen (Inv. Prob. Imag. 2009) showed how to construct Besov prior measures, based on wavelet expansions with random coefficients, and used these prior measures to study linear inverse problems. In this paper we build on this development of Besov priors to include the case of nonlinear measurements. In doing so a key technical tool, established here, is a Fernique-like theorem for Besov measures. This theorem enables us to identify appropriate conditions on the forward solution operator which, when matched to properties of the prior Besov measure, imply the well-definedness and well-posedness of the posterior measure. We then consider the application of these results to the inverse problem of finding the diffusion coefficient of an elliptic partial differential equation, given noisy measurements of its solution.
Surveillance video processing using compressive sensing
Hong Jiang, Wei Deng and Zuowei Shen
2012, 6(2): 201-214 doi: 10.3934/ipi.2012.6.201 +[Abstract](715) +[PDF](1603.6KB)
Abstract:
A compressive sensing method combined with decomposition of a matrix formed with image frames of a surveillance video into low rank and sparse matrices is proposed to segment the background and extract moving objects in a surveillance video. The video is acquired by compressive measurements, and the measurements are used to reconstruct the video by a low rank and sparse decomposition of matrix. The low rank component represents the background, and the sparse component is used to identify moving objects in the surveillance video. The decomposition is performed by an augmented Lagrangian alternating direction method. Experiments are carried out to demonstrate that moving objects can be reliably extracted with a small amount of measurements.
Non-Gaussian statistical inverse problems. Part I: Posterior distributions
Sari Lasanen
2012, 6(2): 215-266 doi: 10.3934/ipi.2012.6.215 +[Abstract](1159) +[PDF](736.7KB)
Abstract:
One approach to noisy inverse problems is to use Bayesian methods. In this work, the statistical inverse problem of estimating the probability distribution of an infinite-dimensional unknown given its noisy indirect infinite-dimensional observation is studied in the Bayesian framework. The motivation for the work arises from the fact that the Bayesian computations are usually carried out in finite-dimensional cases, while the original inverse problem is often infinite-dimensional. A good understanding of an infinite-dimensional problem is, in general, helpful in finding efficient computational approaches to the problem.
    The fundamental question of well-posedness of the infinite-dimensional statistical inverse problem is considered. In particular, it is shown that the continuous dependence of the posterior probabilities on the realizations of the observation provides a certain degree of uniqueness for the posterior distribution.
    Special emphasis is on finding tools for working with non-Gaussian noise models. Especially, the applicability of the generalized Bayes formula is studied. Several examples of explicit posterior distributions are provided.
Non-Gaussian statistical inverse problems. Part II: Posterior convergence for approximated unknowns
Sari Lasanen
2012, 6(2): 267-287 doi: 10.3934/ipi.2012.6.267 +[Abstract](629) +[PDF](441.4KB)
Abstract:
In practical statistical inverse problems, one often considers only finite-dimensional unknowns and investigates numerically their posterior probabilities. As many unknowns are function-valued, it is of interest to know whether the estimated probabilities converge when the finite-dimensional approximations of the unknown are refined. In this work, the generalized Bayes formula is shown to be a powerful tool in the convergence studies. With the help of the generalized Bayes formula, the question of convergence of the posterior distributions is returned to the convergence of the finite-dimensional (or any other) approximations of the unknown. The approach allows many prior distributions while the restrictions are mainly for the noise model and the direct theory. Three modes of convergence of posterior distributions are considered -- weak convergence, setwise convergence and convergence in variation. The convergence of conditional mean estimates is also studied.
Inverse diffusion problems with redundant internal information
François Monard and Guillaume Bal
2012, 6(2): 289-313 doi: 10.3934/ipi.2012.6.289 +[Abstract](759) +[PDF](510.8KB)
Abstract:
This paper concerns the reconstruction of a scalar diffusion coefficient $\sigma(x)$ from redundant functionals of the form $H_i(x)=\sigma^{2\alpha}(x)|\nabla u_i|^2(x)$ where $\alpha\in\mathbb{R}$ and $u_i$ is a solution of the elliptic problem $\nabla\cdot \sigma \nabla u_i=0$ for $1\leq i\leq I$. The case $\alpha=\frac12$ is used to model measurements obtained from modulating a domain of interest by ultrasound and finds applications in ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography (UMEIT), ultrasound modulated optical tomography (UMOT) as well as impedance acoustic computerized tomography (ImpACT). The case $\alpha=1$ finds applications in Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT).
    We present two explicit reconstruction procedures of $\sigma$ for appropriate choices of $I$ and of traces of $u_i$ at the boundary of a domain of interest. The first procedure involves the solution of an over-determined system of ordinary differential equations and generalizes to the multi-dimensional case and to (almost) arbitrary values of $\alpha$ the results obtained in two and three dimensions in [10] and [5], respectively, in the case $\alpha=\frac12$. The second procedure consists of solving a system of linear elliptic equations, which we can prove admits a unique solution in specific situations.
Photo-acoustic inversion in convex domains
Frank Natterer
2012, 6(2): 315-320 doi: 10.3934/ipi.2012.6.315 +[Abstract](818) +[PDF](238.1KB)
Abstract:
In photo-acoustics one has to reconstruct a function from its averages over spheres around points on the measurement surface. For special surfaces inversion formulas are known. In this paper we derive a formula for surfaces that bound smooth convex domains. It reconstructs the function modulo a smoothing integral operator. For special surfaces the integral operator vanishes, providing exact reconstruction.
Reconstruction of the singularities of a potential from backscattering data in 2D and 3D
Juan Manuel Reyes and Alberto Ruiz
2012, 6(2): 321-355 doi: 10.3934/ipi.2012.6.321 +[Abstract](666) +[PDF](574.1KB)
Abstract:
We prove that the singularities of a potential in two and three dimensional Schrödinger equation are the same as those of the Born approximation (Diffraction Tomography), obtained from backscattering inverse data, with an accuracy of $1/2^-$ derivative in the scale of $L^2$-based Sobolev spaces. This improves previous results, see [30] and [20], removing several constrains on the a priori regularity of the potential. The improvement is based on the study of the smoothing properties of the quartic term in the Neumann-Born expansion of the scattering amplitude in 3D, together with a Leibniz formula for multiple scattering valid in any dimension.
Strongly convex programming for exact matrix completion and robust principal component analysis
Hui Zhang, Jian-Feng Cai, Lizhi Cheng and Jubo Zhu
2012, 6(2): 357-372 doi: 10.3934/ipi.2012.6.357 +[Abstract](904) +[PDF](404.8KB)
Abstract:
The common task in matrix completion (MC) and robust principle component analysis (RPCA) is to recover a low-rank matrix from a given data matrix. These problems gained great attention from various areas in applied sciences recently, especially after the publication of the pioneering works of Candès et al.. One fundamental result in MC and RPCA is that nuclear norm based convex optimizations lead to the exact low-rank matrix recovery under suitable conditions. In this paper, we extend this result by showing that strongly convex optimizations can guarantee the exact low-rank matrix recovery as well. The result in this paper not only provides sufficient conditions under which the strongly convex models lead to the exact low-rank matrix recovery, but also guides us on how to choose suitable parameters in practical algorithms.

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