ISSN:

1531-3492

eISSN:

1553-524X

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### Volume 10, 2008

## Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B

August 2017 , Volume 22 , Issue 6

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*+*[Abstract](208)

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**Abstract:**

Given a deterministic difference equation $x_{n+1}= f(x_n)$ with a continuous $f$ increasing on $[0, b]$, $f(0) \geq 0$, we would like to stabilize any point $x^{\ast}\in (f(0), f(b))$, by introducing the proportional feedback (PF) control. We assume that PF control contains either a multiplicative $x_{n+1}= f\left((\nu + \ell\chi_{n+1})x_n \right)$ or an additive noise $x_{n+1}=f(\lambda x_n) +\ell\chi_{n+1}$. We study conditions under which the solution eventually enters some interval, treated as a stochastic (blurred) equilibrium. In addition, we prove that, for each $\varepsilon>0$, when the noise level $\ell$ is sufficiently small, all solutions eventually belong to the interval $(x^{\ast}-\varepsilon, x^{\ast}+\varepsilon)$.

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**Abstract:**

Let HIV infection be modeled by a dynamical system with a Michaelis-Mente-type immune response. A functional cure refers to driving the system from a stable high-viral-load state to a stable low-viral-load state. This may occur only when at least two stable equilibrium states coexist in the system. This paper analyzes how the number of biologically meaningful equilibrium states varies with system parameters. Meanwhile, it investigates how patients' profiles of immune responses determine their clinical outcomes, with focus on functional curability. The analysis provides a criterion that a functional cure is possible only if the capability of immune stimulation starts to attenuate when the density of infected cells is below a threshold. From treatment viewpoints, such a criterion is crucial because it identifies which patients cannot use a low-viral-load state as a treatment endpoint. The deriving process also provides a method to study functional curability problems with a wider class of immune response functions and functional curability problems of similar virus infections such as chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

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**Abstract:**

This paper deals with analysis and numerical simulations of a one-dimensional two-species hyperbolic aggregation model. This model is formed by a system of transport equations with nonlocal velocities, which describes the aggregate dynamics of a two-species population in interaction appearing for instance in bacterial chemotaxis. Blow-up of classical solutions occurs in finite time. This raises the question to define measure-valued solutions for this system. To this aim, we use the duality method developed for transport equations with discontinuous velocity to prove the existence and uniqueness of measure-valued solutions. The proof relies on a stability result. In addition, this approach allows to study the hyperbolic limit of a kinetic chemotaxis model. Moreover, we propose a finite volume numerical scheme whose convergence towards measure-valued solutions is proved. It allows for numerical simulations capturing the behaviour after blow up. Finally, numerical simulations illustrate the complex dynamics of aggregates until the formation of a single aggregate: after blow-up of classical solutions, aggregates of different species are synchronising or nonsynchronising when collide, that is move together or separately, depending on the parameters of the model and masses of species involved.

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**Abstract:**

Averaging principle for the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equations with rapidly oscillating potential and rapidly oscillating force are obtained, both on finite but large time intervals and on the entire time axis. This includes comparison estimate, stability estimate, and convergence result between nonlinear Schrödinger equation and its averaged equation. Furthermore, the existence of almost periodic solution for cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equations is also investigated.

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**Abstract:**

The control of complex nonlinear dynamical networks is an ongoing challenge in diverse contexts ranging from biology to social sciences. To explore a practical framework for controlling nonlinear dynamical networks based on meaningful physical and experimental considerations, we propose a new concept of the domain control for nonlinear dynamical networks, i.e., the control of a nonlinear network in transition from the domain of attraction of an undesired state (attractor) to the domain of attraction of a desired state. We theoretically prove the existence of a domain control. In particular, we offer an approach for identifying the driver nodes that need to be controlled and design a general form of control functions for realizing domain controllability. In addition, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our theory and approaches in three realistic disease-related networks: the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) core network, the T helper (Th) differentiation cellular network and the cancer network. Moreover, we reveal certain genes that are critical to phenotype transitions of these systems. Therefore, the approach described here not only offers a practical control scheme for nonlinear dynamical networks but also helps the development of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of complex diseases.

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**Abstract:**

A convolution model of mistletoes and birds with nonlocal diffusion is considered in this paper. We first consider the stability of the constant steady states of the model by linearized method, and then the existence of traveling solutions. The main aim of this article is to challenge the hardness lying in the construction of upper-lowers for wave profile system. With the help of an additional condition, we at last obtain a pair of upper-lower solutions. A constant $c_{*}>0$ is obtained such that traveling wavefronts exist for $c\geq c_{*}$. Amongst the construction, we take advantage of the relation between two components of principle eigenvector for the linearized system to control the two components of upper solution. The method seems novel. Some simulations and discussions are given to illustrate the applications of our main results and the effect of parameters on $c_{*}$. A comparison for $c_{*}$ is also given with two different kernel functions.

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**Abstract:**

In this paper, we consider a system of three parabolic equations in high-dimensional smoothly bounded domain

which describes the mutual competition between two populations on account of the Lotka-Volterra dynamics.

For any cross-diffusivities $\chi_1>0$ and $\chi_2>0$ and the rates $a_1>0$ and $a_2>0$, it is proved that the global classical bounded solutions exist for sufficiently regular initial data when the parameters $\mu_1$ and $\mu_2$ are sufficiently large. In deriving the convergence of solutions to this system, we need to distinguish two cases $a_1, a_2\in[0, 1)$ and $a_1>1$ and $0\leq a_2 < 1$ to prove globally asymptotic stability.

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**Abstract:**

We propose a seasonal forcing iSIR (indirectly transmitted SIR) model with a modified incidence function, due to the fact that the seasonal fluctuations can be the main culprit for cholera outbreaks. For this nonautonomous system, we provide a sufficient condition for the persistence and the existence of a periodic solution. Furthermore, we provide a sufficient condition for the global stability of the periodic solution. Finally, we present some simulation examples for both autonomous and nonautonomous systems. Simulation results exhibit dynamical complexities, including the bistability of the autonomous system, an unexpected outbreak of cholera for the nonautonomous system, and possible outcomes induced by sudden weather events. Comparatively the nonautonomous system is more realistic in describing the indirect transmission of cholera. Our study reveals that the relative difference between the value of immunological threshold and the peak value of bacterial biomass is critical in determining the dynamical behaviors of the system.

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**Abstract:**

This paper is concerned with the pseudo-parabolic problem

where

*+*[Abstract](319)

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This paper deals with the two-species chemotaxis-competition system

where ^{[1]} proved asymptotic behavior of solutions to the above system under some conditions which roughly mean largeness of ^{[1]}, i.e., the ranges of

*+*[Abstract](139)

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**Abstract:**

The first aim in this paper is to deal with asymptotic behaviors of Green-Sch potentials in a cylinder. As an application we prove the integral representation of nonnegative weak solutions of the stationary Schrödinger equation in a cylinder. Next we give asymptotic behaviors of them outside an exceptional set. Finally we obtain a quantitative property of rarefied sets with respect to the stationary Schrödinger operator at

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**Abstract:**

One particular metric that generates the weak topology on the weak global attractor

*+*[Abstract](183)

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In this paper, oscillatory properties of solutions to a nonlinear impulsive parabolic differential system of neutral type are investigated. A series of sufficient conditions are established for problems with Robin and Dirichlet boundary conditions. Examples are provided to confirm the validity of the analysis.

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In this paper, the dynamical behaviors of a viral infection model with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune response, immune response delay and production delay are investigated. The threshold values for virus infection and immune response are established. By means of Lyapunov functionals methods and LaSalle's invariance principle, sufficient conditions for the global stability of the infection-free and CTL-absent equilibria are established. Global stability of the CTL-present infection equilibrium is also studied when there is no immune delay in the model. Furthermore, to deal with the local stability of the CTL-present infection equilibrium in a general case with two delays being positive, we extend an existing geometric method to treat the associated characteristic equation. When the two delays are positive, we show some conditions for Hopf bifurcation at the CTL-present infection equilibrium by using the immune delay as a bifurcation parameter. Numerical simulations are performed in order to illustrate the dynamical behaviors of the model.

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**Abstract:**

In this paper, we study the numerical solutions of viscoelastic bending wave equations

for

*+*[Abstract](195)

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In this paper, we study a class of piecewise smooth integrable non-Hamiltonian systems, which has a center. By using the first order Melnikov function, we give an exact number of limit cycles which bifurcate from the above periodic annulus under the polynomial perturbation of degree *n*.

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**Abstract:**

In this work, we extend the classical real-valued framework to deal with complex-valued dissipative dynamical systems. With our new complex-valued framework and using generalized complex Banach limits, we construct invariant measures for continuous complex semigroups possessing global attractors. In particular, for any given complex Banach limit and initial data

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**Abstract:**

In latitude-dependent energy balance models, ice-free and ice-covered conditions form physical boundaries of the system. With carbon dioxide treated as a bifurcation parameter, the resulting bifurcation diagram is nonsmooth with curves of equilibria and boundaries forming corners at points of intersection. Over long time scales, atmospheric carbon dioxide varies dynamically and the nonsmooth diagram becomes a set of quasi-equilibria. However, when introducing carbon dynamics, care must be taken with the physical boundaries and appropriate boundary motion specified. In this article, we extend an energy balance model to include slowly varying carbon dioxide and develop nonsmooth frameworks based on physically relevant boundary dynamics. Within these frameworks, we prove existence and uniqueness of solutions, as well as invariance of the region of phase space bounded by ice-free and ice-covered states.

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Using a novel transformation involving the Jacobi Last Multiplier (JLM) we derive an old integrability criterion due to Chiellini for the Liénard equation. By combining the Chiellini condition for integrability and Jacobi's Last Multiplier the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian of the Liénard equation is derived. We also show that the Kukles equation is the only equation in the Liénard family which satisfies both the Chiellini integrability and the Sabatini criterion for isochronicity conditions. In addition we examine this result by mapping the Liénard equation to a harmonic oscillator equation using tacitly Chiellini's condition. Finally we provide a metriplectic and complex Hamiltonian formulation of the Liénard equation through the use of Chiellini condition for integrability.

*+*[Abstract](167)

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**Abstract:**

In this paper, we consider two SEIR epidemic models with distributed delay in random environments. First of all, by constructing a suitable stochastic Lyapunov function, we obtain the existence of stationarity of the positive solution to the stochastic autonomous system. Then we establish sufficient conditions for extinction of the disease. Finally, by using Khasminskii's theory of periodic solutions, we prove that the stochastic nonautonomous epidemic model admits at least one nontrivial positive *T*-periodic solution under a simple condition.

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**Abstract:**

In this paper, one-dimensional quasi-periodically forced generalized Boussinesq equation

with hinged boundary conditions is considered, where

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