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Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B

May 2013 , Volume 18 , Issue 3

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Mathematics of traveling waves in chemotaxis --Review paper--
Zhi-An Wang
2013, 18(3): 601-641 doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2013.18.601 +[Abstract](1202) +[PDF](993.0KB)
Abstract:
This article surveys the mathematical aspects of traveling waves of a class of chemotaxis models with logarithmic sensitivity, which describe a variety of biological or medical phenomena including bacterial chemotactic motion, initiation of angiogenesis and reinforced random walks. The survey is focused on the existence, wave speed, asymptotic decay rates, stability and chemical diffusion limits of traveling wave solutions. The main approaches are reviewed and related analytical results are given with sketchy proofs. We also develop some new results with detailed proofs to fill the gap existing in the literature. The numerical simulations of steadily propagating waves will be presented along the study. Open problems are proposed for interested readers to pursue.
Random attractors for stochastic FitzHugh-Nagumo systems driven by deterministic non-autonomous forcing
Abiti Adili and Bixiang Wang
2013, 18(3): 643-666 doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2013.18.643 +[Abstract](938) +[PDF](464.8KB)
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with the asymptotic behavior of solutions of the FitzHugh-Nagumo system on $\mathbb{R}^n$ driven by additive noise and deterministic non-autonomous forcing. We prove the system has a random attractor which pullback attracts all tempered random sets. We also prove the periodicity of the random attractor when the system is perturbed by time periodic forcing. The pullback asymptotic compactness of solutions is established by uniform estimates on the tails of solutions outside a large ball in $\mathbb{R}^n$.
The spectral collocation method for stochastic differential equations
Can Huang and Zhimin Zhang
2013, 18(3): 667-679 doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2013.18.667 +[Abstract](673) +[PDF](403.1KB)
Abstract:
In this paper, we use the Chebyshev spectral collocation method to solve a certain type of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). We also use this method to estimate parameters of stochastic differential equations from discrete observations by maximum likelihood technique and Kessler technique. Our numerical tests shows that the spectral method gives better results than the Euler's method and the Shoji-Ozaki method.
On the Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck equation near Maxwellian
Hyung Ju Hwang and Juhi Jang
2013, 18(3): 681-691 doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2013.18.681 +[Abstract](727) +[PDF](358.2KB)
Abstract:
We establish the exponential time decay rate of smooth solutions of small amplitude to the Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck equations to the Maxwellian both in the whole space and in the periodic box via the uniform-in-time energy estimates and also the macroscopic equations.
Nonlocal generalized models of predator-prey systems
Christian Kuehn and Thilo Gross
2013, 18(3): 693-720 doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2013.18.693 +[Abstract](761) +[PDF](516.2KB)
Abstract:
The method of generalized modeling has been used to analyze differential equations arising in applications. It makes minimal assumptions about the precise functional form of the differential equation and the quantitative values of the steady-states which it aims to analyze from a dynamical systems perspective. The method has been applied successfully in many different contexts, particularly in ecology and systems biology, where the key advantage is that one does not have to select a particular model but is able to provide directly applicable conclusions for sets of models simultaneously. Although many dynamical systems in mathematical biology exhibit steady-state behaviour one also wants to understand nonlocal dynamics beyond equilibrium points. In this paper we analyze predator-prey dynamical systems and extend the method of generalized models to periodic solutions. First, we adapt the equilibrium generalized modeling approach and compute the unique Floquet multiplier of the periodic solution which depends upon so-called generalized elasticity and scale functions. We prove that these functions also have to satisfy a flow on parameter (or moduli) space. Then we use Fourier analysis to provide computable conditions for stability and the moduli space flow. The final stability analysis reduces to two discrete convolutions which can be interpreted to understand when the predator-prey system is stable and what factors enhance or prohibit stable oscillatory behaviour. Finally, we provide a sampling algorithm for parameter space based on nonlinear optimization and the Fast Fourier Transform which enables us to gain a statistical understanding of the stability properties of periodic predator-prey dynamics.
Robustness of Morphogen gradients with "bucket brigade" transport through membrane-associated non-receptors
Jinzhi Lei, Dongyong Wang, You Song, Qing Nie and Frederic Y. M. Wan
2013, 18(3): 721-739 doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2013.18.721 +[Abstract](895) +[PDF](488.4KB)
Abstract:
Robust multiple-fate morphogen gradients are essential for embryo development. Here, we analyze mathematically a model of morphogen gradient (such as Dpp in Drosophila wing imaginal disc) formation in the presence of non-receptors with both diffusion of free morphogens and the movement of morphogens bound to non-receptors. Under the assumption of rapid degradation of unbound morphogen, we introduce a method of functional boundary value problem and prove the existence, uniqueness and linear stability of a biologically acceptable steady-state solution. Next, we investigate the robustness of this steady-state solution with respect to significant changes in the morphogen synthesis rate. We prove that the model is able to produce robust biological morphogen gradients when production and degradation rates of morphogens are large enough and non-receptors are abundant. Our results provide mathematical and biological insight to a mechanism of achieving stable robust long distance morphogen gradients. Key elements of this mechanism are rapid turnover of morphogen to non-receptors of neighoring cells resulting in significant degradation and transport of non-receptor-morphogen complexes, the latter moving downstream through a "bucket brigade" process.
Multidimensional stability of planar traveling waves for an integrodifference model
Judith R. Miller and Huihui Zeng
2013, 18(3): 741-751 doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2013.18.741 +[Abstract](683) +[PDF](379.8KB)
Abstract:
This paper studies the multidimensional stability of planar traveling waves for integrodifference equations. It is proved that for a Gaussian dispersal kernel, if the traveling wave is exponentially orbitally stable in one space dimension, then the corresponding planar wave is stable in $H^m(\mathbb{R}^N)$, $N\ge 4$, $m\ge [N/2]+1$, with the perturbation decaying at algebraic rate.
Adaptation and migration of a population between patches
Sepideh Mirrahimi
2013, 18(3): 753-768 doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2013.18.753 +[Abstract](629) +[PDF](648.2KB)
Abstract:
A Hamilton-Jacobi formulation has been established previously for phenotypically structured population models where the solution concentrates as Dirac masses in the limit of small diffusion. Is it possible to extend this approach to spatial models? Are the limiting solutions still in the form of sums of Dirac masses? Does the presence of several habitats lead to polymorphic situations? We study the stationary solutions of a structured population model, while the population is structured by continuous phenotypical traits and discrete positions in space. The growth term varies from one habitable zone to another, for instance because of a change in the temperature. The individuals can migrate from one zone to another with a constant rate. The mathematical modeling of this problem, considering mutations between phenotypical traits and competitive interaction of individuals within each zone via a single resource, leads to a system of coupled parabolic integro-differential equations. We study the asymptotic behavior of the stationary solutions to this model in the limit of small mutations. The limit, which is a sum of Dirac masses, can be described with the help of an effective Hamiltonian. The presence of migration can modify the dominant traits and lead to polymorphic situations.
Multiple steady states in a mathematical model for interactions between T cells and macrophages
Alan D. Rendall
2013, 18(3): 769-782 doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2013.18.769 +[Abstract](626) +[PDF](353.5KB)
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to prove results about the existence and stability of multiple steady states in a system of ordinary differential equations introduced by R. Lev Bar-Or [5] to model the interactions between T cells and macrophages. Previous results showed that for certain values of the parameters these equations have three stationary solutions, two of which are stable. Here it is shown that there are values of the parameters for which the number of stationary solutions is at least seven and the number of stable stationary solutions at least four. This requires approaches different to those used in existing work on this subject. In addition, a rather explicit characterization is obtained of regions of parameter space for which the system has a given number of stationary solutions.
Dynamical analysis in growth models: Blumberg's equation
J. Leonel Rocha and Sandra M. Aleixo
2013, 18(3): 783-795 doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2013.18.783 +[Abstract](710) +[PDF](642.8KB)
Abstract:
We present a new dynamical approach to the Blumberg's equation, a family of unimodal maps. These maps are proportional to $Beta(p,q)$ probability densities functions. Using the symmetry of the $Beta(p,q)$ distribution and symbolic dynamics techniques, a new concept of mirror symmetry is defined for this family of maps. The kneading theory is used to analyze the effect of such symmetry in the presented models. The main result proves that two mirror symmetric unimodal maps have the same topological entropy. Different population dynamics regimes are identified, when the intrinsic growth rate is modified: extinctions, stabilities, bifurcations, chaos and Allee effect. To illustrate our results, we present a numerical analysis, where are demonstrated: monotonicity of the topological entropy with the variation of the intrinsic growth rate, existence of isentropic sets in the parameters space and mirror symmetry.
The long time behavior of a spectral collocation method for delay differential equations of pantograph type
Jie Tang, Ziqing Xie and Zhimin Zhang
2013, 18(3): 797-819 doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2013.18.797 +[Abstract](609) +[PDF](473.0KB)
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose an efficient numerical method for delay differential equations with vanishing proportional delay qt (0 < q < 1). The algorithm is a mixture of the Legendre-Gauss collocation method and domain decomposition. It has global convergence and spectral accuracy provided that the data in the given pantograph delay differential equation are sufficiently smooth. Numerical results demonstrate the spectral accuracy of this approach and coincide well with theoretical analysis.
Large-time behavior of a parabolic-parabolic chemotaxis model with logarithmic sensitivity in one dimension
Youshan Tao, Lihe Wang and Zhi-An Wang
2013, 18(3): 821-845 doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2013.18.821 +[Abstract](913) +[PDF](541.2KB)
Abstract:
This paper deals with the chemotaxis system $$ \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} u_t ={D} u_{xx}-\chi [u(\ln v)_x]_x, & x\in (0, 1), \ t>0,\\ v_t =\varepsilon v_{xx} +uv-\mu v, & x\in (0, 1), \ t>0, \end{array} \right. $$ under Neumann boundary condition, where $\chi<0$, $D>0$, $\varepsilon>0$ and $\mu>0$ are constants.
It is shown that for any sufficiently smooth initial data $(u_0, v_0)$ fulfilling $u_0\ge 0$, $u_0 \not\equiv 0$ and $v_0>0$, the system possesses a unique global smooth solution that enjoys exponential convergence properties in $L^\infty(\Omega)$ as time goes to infinity, which depend on the sign of $\mu-\bar{u}_0$, where $\bar{u}_0 :=\int_0^1 u_0 dx$. Moreover, we prove that the constant pair $(\mu, (\frac{\mu}{\lambda})^{\frac{D}{\chi}})$ (where $\lambda>0$ is an arbitrary constant) is the only positive stationary solution. The biological implications of our results will be given in the paper.

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