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Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A

2015 , Volume 35 , Issue 12

Special issue on contemporary PDEs between theory and applications

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Contemporary PDEs between theory and applications
Enrico Valdinoci
2015, 35(12): i-i doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.12i +[Abstract](213) +[PDF](72.5KB)
Abstract:
This special issue of Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems is devoted to some recent developments in some important fields of partial differential equations.
    The aim is to bring together several contributions in different fields that range from classical to modern topics with the intent to present new research perspectives, innovative methods and challenging applications.
    Though it was of course impossible to take into account all the possible lines of research in PDEs, we tried to present a wide spectrum, hoping to capture the interest of both the general mathematical audience and the specialized mathematicians that work in differential equations and related fields.
    We think that the Authors put a great effort to write their contributions in the clearest possible language. We are indeed grateful to all the Authors that contributed to this special issue, donating beautiful pieces of mathematics to the community and promoting further developments in the field.
    We also thank the Managing Editor for his kind invitation to act as an editor of this special issue.
    Also, we express our gratitude to all the Referees who kindly agreed to devote their time and efforts to read and check all the papers carefully, providing useful comments and recommendations. Indeed, each paper was submitted to the meticulous inspection of two independent and anonymous Experts, whose observations were fundamental to the final outcome of this special issue.
    Finally, we would like to wish a `Happy reading!' to the Reader. This volume is for Her (or Him), after all.
Large $s$-harmonic functions and boundary blow-up solutions for the fractional Laplacian
Nicola Abatangelo
2015, 35(12): 5555-5607 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5555 +[Abstract](249) +[PDF](661.7KB)
Abstract:
We present a notion of weak solution for the Dirichlet problem driven by the fractional Laplacian, following the Stampacchia theory. Then, we study semilinear problems of the form $$ \left\lbrace\begin{array}{ll} (-\triangle)^s u = \pm\,f(x,u) & \hbox{ in }\Omega \\ u=g & \hbox{ in }\mathbb{R}^n\setminus\overline{\Omega}\\ Eu=h & \hbox{ on }\partial\Omega \end{array}\right. $$ when the nonlinearity $f$ and the boundary data $g,h$ are positive, but allowing the right-hand side to be both positive or negative and looking for solutions that blow up at the boundary. The operator $E$ is a weighted limit to the boundary: for example, if $\Omega$ is the ball $B$, there exists a constant $C(n,s)>0$ such that $$ Eu(\theta) = C(n,s) \lim_{x \to \theta}_{x\in B} u(x) {dist(x,\partial B)}^{1-s}, \hbox{ for all } \theta \in \partial B. $$ Our starting observation is the existence of $s$-harmonic functions which explode at the boundary: these will be used both as supersolutions in the case of negative right-hand side and as subsolutions in the positive case.
Harmonic functions in union of chambers
Laura Abatangelo and Susanna Terracini
2015, 35(12): 5609-5629 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5609 +[Abstract](218) +[PDF](432.2KB)
Abstract:
We characterize the set of harmonic functions with Dirichlet boundary conditions in unbounded domains which are union of two different chambers. We analyse the asymptotic behavior of the solutions in connection with the changes in the domain's geometry; we classify all (possibly sign-changing) infinite energy solutions having given asymptotic frequency at the infinite ends of the domain; finally we sketch the case of several different chambers.
Density estimates for vector minimizers and applications
Nicholas D. Alikakos and Giorgio Fusco
2015, 35(12): 5631-5663 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5631 +[Abstract](225) +[PDF](716.8KB)
Abstract:
We extend the Caffarelli--Córdoba estimates to the vector case (L. Caffarelli and A. Córdoba, Uniform Convergence of a singular perturbation problem, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 48 (1995)). In particular, we establish lower codimension density estimates. These are useful for studying the hierarchical structure of minimal solutions. We also give applications.
Variational parabolic capacity
Benny Avelin, Tuomo Kuusi and Mikko Parviainen
2015, 35(12): 5665-5688 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5665 +[Abstract](205) +[PDF](458.1KB)
Abstract:
We establish a variational parabolic capacity in a context of degenerate parabolic equations of $p$-Laplace type, and show that this capacity is equivalent to the nonlinear parabolic capacity. As an application, we estimate the capacities of several explicit sets.
On the classical limit of the Schrödinger equation
Claude Bardos, François Golse, Peter Markowich and Thierry Paul
2015, 35(12): 5689-5709 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5689 +[Abstract](298) +[PDF](466.7KB)
Abstract:
This paper provides an elementary proof of the classical limit of the Schrödinger equation with WKB type initial data and over arbitrary long finite time intervals. We use only the stationary phase method and the Laptev-Sigal simple and elegant construction of a parametrix for Schrödinger type equations [A. Laptev, I. Sigal, Review of Math. Phys. 12 (2000), 749--766]. We also explain in detail how the phase shifts across caustics obtained when using the Laptev-Sigal parametrix are related to the Maslov index.
Eventual regularity for the parabolic minimal surface equation
Giovanni Bellettini, Matteo Novaga and Giandomenico Orlandi
2015, 35(12): 5711-5723 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5711 +[Abstract](208) +[PDF](406.8KB)
Abstract:
We show that the parabolic minimal surface equation has an eventual regularization effect, that is, the solution becomes smooth after a strictly positive finite time.
Existence, uniqueness and asymptotic behaviour for fractional porous medium equations on bounded domains
Matteo Bonforte, Yannick Sire and Juan Luis Vázquez
2015, 35(12): 5725-5767 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5725 +[Abstract](295) +[PDF](703.0KB)
Abstract:
We consider nonlinear diffusive evolution equations posed on bounded space domains, governed by fractional Laplace-type operators, and involving porous medium type nonlinearities. We establish existence and uniqueness results in a suitable class of solutions using the theory of maximal monotone operators on dual spaces. Then we describe the long-time asymptotics in terms of separate-variables solutions of the friendly giant type. As a by-product, we obtain an existence and uniqueness result for semilinear elliptic non local equations with sub-linear nonlinearities. The Appendix contains a review of the theory of fractional Sobolev spaces and of the interpolation theory that are used in the rest of the paper.
On the variation of the fractional mean curvature under the effect of $C^{1, \alpha}$ perturbations
Matteo Cozzi
2015, 35(12): 5769-5786 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5769 +[Abstract](349) +[PDF](426.4KB)
Abstract:
In this brief note we study how the fractional mean curvature of order $s \in (0, 1)$ varies with respect to $C^{1, \alpha}$ diffeomorphisms. We prove that, if $\alpha > s$, then the variation under a $C^{1, \alpha}$ diffeomorphism $\Psi$ of the $s$-mean curvature of a set $E$ is controlled by the $C^{0, \alpha}$ norm of the Jacobian of $\Psi$. When $\alpha = 1$ we discuss the stability of these estimates as $s \rightarrow 1^-$ and comment on the consistency of our result with the classical framework.
Short-time existence of the second order renormalization group flow in dimension three
Laura Cremaschi and Carlo Mantegazza
2015, 35(12): 5787-5798 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5787 +[Abstract](196) +[PDF](334.3KB)
Abstract:
Given a compact three--manifold together with a Riemannian metric, we prove the short--time existence of a solution to the renormalization group flow, truncated at the second order term, under a suitable hypothesis on the sectional curvature of the initial metric.
Extremal domains for the first eigenvalue in a general compact Riemannian manifold
Erwann Delay and Pieralberto Sicbaldi
2015, 35(12): 5799-5825 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5799 +[Abstract](207) +[PDF](470.7KB)
Abstract:
We prove the existence of extremal domains with small prescribed volume for the first eigenvalue of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in any compact Riemannian manifold. This result generalizes a results of F. Pacard and the second author where the existence of a nondegenerate critical point of the scalar curvature of the Riemannian manifold was required.
Unique continuation properties for relativistic Schrödinger operators with a singular potential
Mouhamed Moustapha Fall and Veronica Felli
2015, 35(12): 5827-5867 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5827 +[Abstract](293) +[PDF](644.7KB)
Abstract:
Asymptotics of solutions to relativistic fractional elliptic equations with Hardy type potentials is established in this paper. As a consequence, unique continuation properties are obtained.
Symmetry of components, Liouville-type theorems and classification results for some nonlinear elliptic systems
Alberto Farina
2015, 35(12): 5869-5877 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5869 +[Abstract](239) +[PDF](356.5KB)
Abstract:
We prove the symmetry of components and some Liouville-type theorems for, possibly sign changing, entire distributional solutions to a family of nonlinear elliptic systems encompassing models arising in Bose-Einstein condensation and in nonlinear optics. For these models we also provide precise classification results for non-negative solutions. The sharpness of our results is also discussed.
A partially hinged rectangular plate as a model for suspension bridges
Alberto Ferrero and Filippo Gazzola
2015, 35(12): 5879-5908 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5879 +[Abstract](290) +[PDF](699.8KB)
Abstract:
A plate model describing the statics and dynamics of a suspension bridge is suggested. A partially hinged plate subject to nonlinear restoring hangers is considered. The whole theory from linear problems, through nonlinear stationary equations, ending with the full hyperbolic evolution equation is studied. This paper aims to be the starting point for more refined models.
Harnack type inequalities for some doubly nonlinear singular parabolic equations
Simona Fornaro, Maria Sosio and Vincenzo Vespri
2015, 35(12): 5909-5926 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5909 +[Abstract](256) +[PDF](456.1KB)
Abstract:
We prove Harnack type inequalities for a wide class of parabolic doubly nonlinear equations including $u_t=$ ${ div}(|u|^{m-1}|Du|^{p-2}Du)$. We will distinguish between the supercritical range $3 - \frac {p} {N} < p+m < 3$ and the subcritical $2 < p+m \le 3 - \frac {p} {N}$ range. Our results extend similar estimates holding for general equations having the same structure as the parabolic $p$-Laplace or the porous medium equation and recently collected in [6].
On the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the fractional porous medium equation with variable density
Gabriele Grillo, Matteo Muratori and Fabio Punzo
2015, 35(12): 5927-5962 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5927 +[Abstract](268) +[PDF](654.6KB)
Abstract:
We are concerned with the long time behaviour of solutions to the fractional porous medium equation with a variable spatial density. We prove that if the density decays slowly at infinity, then the solution approaches the Barenblatt-type solution of a proper singular fractional problem. If, on the contrary, the density decays rapidly at infinity, we show that the minimal solution multiplied by a suitable power of the time variable converges to the minimal solution of a certain fractional sublinear elliptic equation.
Ground states for scalar field equations with anisotropic nonlocal nonlinearities
Antonio Iannizzotto, Kanishka Perera and Marco Squassina
2015, 35(12): 5963-5976 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5963 +[Abstract](186) +[PDF](406.8KB)
Abstract:
We consider a class of scalar field equations with anisotropic nonlocal nonlinearities. We obtain a suitable extension of the well-known compactness lemma of Benci and Cerami to this variable exponent setting, and use it to prove that the Palais-Smale condition holds at all level below a certain threshold. We deduce the existence of a ground state when the variable exponent slowly approaches the limit at infinity from below.
Schauder estimates for solutions of linear parabolic integro-differential equations
Tianling Jin and Jingang Xiong
2015, 35(12): 5977-5998 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5977 +[Abstract](377) +[PDF](454.5KB)
Abstract:
We prove optimal pointwise Schauder estimates in the spatial variables for solutions of linear parabolic integro-differential equations. Optimal Hölder estimates in space-time for those spatial derivatives are also obtained.
Quasistatic evolution of magnetoelastic plates via dimension reduction
Martin Kružík, Ulisse Stefanelli and Chiara Zanini
2015, 35(12): 5999-6013 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.5999 +[Abstract](235) +[PDF](412.3KB)
Abstract:
A rate-independent model for the quasistatic evolution of a magnetoelastic plate is advanced and analyzed. Starting from the three-dimensional setting, we present an evolutionary $\Gamma$-convergence argument in order to pass to the limit in one of the material dimensions. By taking into account both conservative and dissipative actions, a nonlinear evolution system of rate-independent type is obtained. The existence of so-called energetic solutions to such system is proved via approximation.
Characterization of function spaces via low regularity mollifiers
Xavier Lamy and Petru Mironescu
2015, 35(12): 6015-6030 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.6015 +[Abstract](192) +[PDF](428.6KB)
Abstract:
Smoothness of a function $f:\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}$ can be measured in terms of the rate of convergence of $f*\rho_{\epsilon}$ to $f$, where $\rho$ is an appropriate mollifier. In the framework of fractional Sobolev spaces, we characterize the "appropriate" mollifiers. We also obtain sufficient conditions, close to being necessary, which ensure that $\rho$ is adapted to a given scale of spaces. Finally, we examine in detail the case where $\rho$ is a characteristic function.
Basic estimates for solutions of a class of nonlocal elliptic and parabolic equations
Tommaso Leonori, Ireneo Peral, Ana Primo and Fernando Soria
2015, 35(12): 6031-6068 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.6031 +[Abstract](553) +[PDF](475.5KB)
Abstract:
In this work we consider the problems $$ \left\{\begin{array}{rcll} \mathcal{L \,} u&=&f &\hbox{ in } \Omega,\\ u&=&0 &\hbox{ in } \mathbb{R}^N\setminus\Omega, \end{array} \right. $$ and $$ \left\{\begin{array}{rcll} u_t +\mathcal{L \,} u&=&f &\hbox{ in } Q_{T}\equiv\Omega\times (0, T),\\ u (x,t) &=&0 &\hbox{ in } \big(\mathbb{R}^N\setminus\Omega\big) \times (0, T),\\ u(x,0)&=&0 &\hbox{ in } \Omega, \end{array} \right. $$ where $\mathcal{L \,}$ is a nonlocal differential operator and $\Omega$ is a bounded domain in $\mathbb{R}^N$, with Lipschitz boundary.
    The main goal of this work is to study existence, uniqueness and summability of the solution $u$ with respect to the summability of the datum $f$. In the process we establish an $L^p$-theory, for $p \geq 1$, associated to these problems and we prove some useful inequalities for the applications.
Regularity of the homogeneous Monge-Ampère equation
Qi-Rui Li and Xu-Jia Wang
2015, 35(12): 6069-6084 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.6069 +[Abstract](256) +[PDF](405.6KB)
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the regularity of convex solutions to the Dirichlet problem of the homogeneous Monge-Ampère equation $\det D^2 u=0$. We prove that if the domain is a strip region and the boundary functions are locally uniformly convex and $C^{k+2,\alpha}$ smooth, then the solution is $C^{k+2,\alpha}$ smooth up to boundary. By an example, we show the solution may fail to be $C^{2}$ smooth if boundary functions are not locally uniformly convex. Similar results have also been obtained for the Dirichlet problem on bounded convex domains.
Stable solitary waves with prescribed $L^2$-mass for the cubic Schrödinger system with trapping potentials
Benedetta Noris, Hugo Tavares and Gianmaria Verzini
2015, 35(12): 6085-6112 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.6085 +[Abstract](221) +[PDF](546.0KB)
Abstract:
For the cubic Schrödinger system with trapping potentials in $\mathbb{R}^N$, $N\leq3$, or in bounded domains, we investigate the existence and the orbital stability of standing waves having components with prescribed $L^2$-mass. We provide a variational characterization of such solutions, which gives information on the stability through a condition of Grillakis-Shatah-Strauss type. As an application, we show existence of conditionally orbitally stable solitary waves when: a) the masses are small, for almost every scattering lengths, and b) in the defocusing, weakly interacting case, for any masses.
Full characterization of optimal transport plans for concave costs
Paul Pegon, Filippo Santambrogio and Davide Piazzoli
2015, 35(12): 6113-6132 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.6113 +[Abstract](223) +[PDF](418.7KB)
Abstract:
This paper slightly improves a classical result by Gangbo and McCann (1996) about the structure of optimal transport plans for costs that are strictly concave and increasing functions of the Euclidean distance. Since the main difficulty for proving the existence of an optimal map comes from the possible singularity of the cost at $0$, everything is quite easy if the supports of the two measures are disjoint; Gangbo and McCann proved the result under the assumption $\mu(supp(\mathbf{v}))=0$; in this paper we replace this assumption with the fact that the two measures are singular to each other. In this case it is possible to prove the existence of an optimal transport map, provided the starting measure $\mu$ does not give mass to small sets (i.e. $(d\!-\!1)-$rectifiable sets). When the measures are not singular the optimal transport plan decomposes into two parts, one concentrated on the diagonal and the other being a transport map between mutually singular measures.
Complexity and regularity of maximal energy domains for the wave equation with fixed initial data
Yannick Privat, Emmanuel Trélat and Enrique Zuazua
2015, 35(12): 6133-6153 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.6133 +[Abstract](268) +[PDF](701.1KB)
Abstract:
We consider the homogeneous wave equation on a bounded open connected subset $\Omega$ of $\mathbb{R}^n$. Some initial data being specified, we consider the problem of determining a measurable subset $\omega$ of $\Omega$ maximizing the $L^2$-norm of the restriction of the corresponding solution to $\omega$ over a time interval $[0,T]$, over all possible subsets of $\Omega$ having a certain prescribed measure. We prove that this problem always has at least one solution and that, if the initial data satisfy some analyticity assumptions, then the optimal set is unique and moreover has a finite number of connected components. In contrast, we construct smooth but not analytic initial conditions for which the optimal set is of Cantor type and in particular has an infinite number of connected components.
A note on higher regularity boundary Harnack inequality
Daniela De Silva and Ovidiu Savin
2015, 35(12): 6155-6163 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.6155 +[Abstract](278) +[PDF](323.5KB)
Abstract:
We show that the quotient of a harmonic function and a positive harmonic function, both vanishing on the boundary of a $C^{k,\alpha}$ domain is of class $C^{k,\alpha}$ up to the boundary.
The Hessian Sobolev inequality and its extensions
Igor E. Verbitsky
2015, 35(12): 6165-6179 doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.6165 +[Abstract](220) +[PDF](401.8KB)
Abstract:
The Hessian Sobolev inequality of X.-J. Wang, and the Hessian Poincaré inequalities of Trudinger and Wang are fundamental to differential and conformal geometry, and geometric PDE. These remarkable inequalities were originally established via gradient flow methods. In this paper, direct elliptic proofs are given, and extensions to trace inequalities with general measures in place of Lebesgue measure are obtained. The new techniques rely on global estimates of solutions to Hessian equations in terms of Wolff's potentials, and duality arguments making use of a non-commutative inner product on the cone of $k$-convex functions.

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