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Selection of DRX scheme for voice traffic in LTEA networks: Markov modeling and performance analysis
Department of Mathematics, IIT Delhi, New Delhi 110016, India 
Power saving is a leading issue in the User Equipment (UE) for limited source of power in Long Term EvolutionAdvanced (LTEA) networks. Battery power of an UE gets exhaust quickly due to the heavy use of many service applications and large data transmission. Discontinuous reception (DRX) is a mechanism used for power saving in UE in the LTEA networks. There are scope of improvements in conventional DRX scheme in LTEA networks for voice communication. In this paper, a DRX scheme is chosen by selecting optimal parameters of DRX scheme, while keeping Quality of Service (QoS) delay requirements. Further, delay analysis for first downlink packet is performed. Moreover, expressions for delay distribution and expected delay of any downlink packet, are obtained and represented graphically. Based on analytical model, the tradeoff relationship between the power saving and queueing delay is investigated.
References:
[1] 
S. Baek and B. D. Choi, Analysis of discontinuous reception (DRX) with both downlink and uplink packet arrivals in 3GPP LTE, In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Queueing Theory and Network Applications, (2011), 8–16. 
[2] 
S. Baek and B. D. Choi, Analysis of discontinuous reception with both downlink and uplink packet arrivals in 3GPP LTE, Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization, 8 (2012), 841860. doi: 10.3934/jimo.2012.8.841. 
[3] 
P. T. Brady, A model for generating onoff speech patterns in twoway conversation, Bell System Technical Journal, 48 (1969), 24452472. 
[4] 
T. K. Cheng, J. L. C. Wu, F. M. Yang and J. S. Leu, IEEE 802.16 e/m energyefficient sleepmode operation with delay limitation in multibroadcast services, International Journal of Communication Systems, 27 (2014), 4567. 
[5] 
S. Flower, R. S. Bhamber and A. Mellouk, Analysis of adjustable and fixed DRX mechanism for power saving in LTE/LTEAdvanced, In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), (2012), 1964–1969. 
[6] 
H. Heffes and D. Lucantoni, A Markov modulated characterization of packetized voice and data traffic and related statistical multiplexer performance, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 4 (1986), 856868. 
[7] 
J. Huang, F. Qian, A. Gerber, Z. M. Mao, S. Sen and O. Spatscheck, A close examination of performance and power characteristics of 4G LTE networks, In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, (2012), 225238. 
[8] 
E. Hwang, Y. H. Lee, K. J. Kim, J. J. Son and B. D. Choi, Performance analysis of power saving mechanism employing both sleep mode and idle mode in IEEE 802.16 e, IEICE Transactions on Communications, 92 (2009), 28092822. 
[9] 
E. Hwang, K. J. Kim, J. J. Son and B. D. Choi, The powersaving mechanism with periodic traffic indications in the IEEE 802.16 e/m, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 59 (2010), 319334. 
[10] 
E. Hwang, K. J. Kim and B. D. Choi, Performance Analysis of Power Saving Class of Type Ⅰ for Voice Service in TwoWay Communication in IEEE 802.16 e, IEICE Transactions on Communications, 95 (2012), 845856. 
[11] 
M. J. Karam and F. A. Tobagi, Analysis of the delay and jitter of voice traffic over the internet, In Proceedings of IEEE Twentieth Annual Joint Conference of The IEEE Computer and Communications Societies(ICCS), 2 (2001), 824–833. 
[12] 
L. Kong, G. K. W. Wong and D. H. K. Tsang, Performance study and system optimization on sleep mode operation in IEEE 802.16 e, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 8 (2009), 45184528. 
[13] 
Y. Y. Mihov, K. M. Kassev and B. P. Tsankov, Analysis and performance evaluation of the DRX mechanism for power saving in LTE, In Proceedings of IEEE 26th Convention of In Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel (IEEEI), (2014), 520–524. 
[14] 
Rumney and Moray, LTE and the Evolution to 4G Wireless: Design and Measurement Challenges, John Wiley & Sons, 2014. 
[15] 
G. Stea and A. Virdis, A Comprehensive Simulation Analysis of LTE Discontinuous Reception (DRX), Computer Networks, 73 (2014), 2240. doi: 10.1016/j.comnet.2014.07.014. 
[16] 
H. P. Stern, S. A. Mahmoud and K. K. Wong, A model for generating onoff patterns in conversational speech, including short silence gaps and the effects of interaction between parties, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 43 (1994), 10941100. 
[17] 
Y. Xiao, Energy saving mechanism in the IEEE 802.16 e wireless MAN, IEEE Communications Letters, 9 (2005), 595597. 
[18] 
Y. Xiao, Performance analysis of an energy saving mechanism in the IEEE 802. 16 e wireless MAN, In Proceedings of 3rd IEEE In Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC), (2006), 406–410. 
[19] 
C. C. Yang, J. Y. Chen, Y. T. Mai and H. H. Liu, Integrated power saving for relay node and user equipment in LTEA, International Journal of Communication Systems, 29 (2016), 13421364. 
[20] 
F. Zarai, K. B. Ali, M. S. Obaidat and L. Kamoun, Adaptive call admission control in 3GPP LTE networks, International Journal of Communication Systems, 27 (2014), 15221534. 
[21] 
Y. Zhang, Y. Xiao and V. C. M. Leung, Energy management analysis and enhancement in IEEE 802.16 e WirelessMAN, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 58 (2009), 37383752. 
[22] 
L. Zhou, H. Xu, H. Tian, Y. Gao, L. Du and L. Chen, Performance analysis of power saving mechanism with adjustable DRX cycles in 3GPP LTE, In Proceedings of IEEE 68th Vehicular Technology Conference, (2008), 1–5. 
[23] 
F. Zhu, W. Yiqun and Z. Niu, Delay analysis for sleepbased power saving mechanisms with downlink and uplink traffic, IEEE Communications Letters, 13 (2009), 615617. 
show all references
References:
[1] 
S. Baek and B. D. Choi, Analysis of discontinuous reception (DRX) with both downlink and uplink packet arrivals in 3GPP LTE, In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Queueing Theory and Network Applications, (2011), 8–16. 
[2] 
S. Baek and B. D. Choi, Analysis of discontinuous reception with both downlink and uplink packet arrivals in 3GPP LTE, Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization, 8 (2012), 841860. doi: 10.3934/jimo.2012.8.841. 
[3] 
P. T. Brady, A model for generating onoff speech patterns in twoway conversation, Bell System Technical Journal, 48 (1969), 24452472. 
[4] 
T. K. Cheng, J. L. C. Wu, F. M. Yang and J. S. Leu, IEEE 802.16 e/m energyefficient sleepmode operation with delay limitation in multibroadcast services, International Journal of Communication Systems, 27 (2014), 4567. 
[5] 
S. Flower, R. S. Bhamber and A. Mellouk, Analysis of adjustable and fixed DRX mechanism for power saving in LTE/LTEAdvanced, In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), (2012), 1964–1969. 
[6] 
H. Heffes and D. Lucantoni, A Markov modulated characterization of packetized voice and data traffic and related statistical multiplexer performance, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 4 (1986), 856868. 
[7] 
J. Huang, F. Qian, A. Gerber, Z. M. Mao, S. Sen and O. Spatscheck, A close examination of performance and power characteristics of 4G LTE networks, In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, (2012), 225238. 
[8] 
E. Hwang, Y. H. Lee, K. J. Kim, J. J. Son and B. D. Choi, Performance analysis of power saving mechanism employing both sleep mode and idle mode in IEEE 802.16 e, IEICE Transactions on Communications, 92 (2009), 28092822. 
[9] 
E. Hwang, K. J. Kim, J. J. Son and B. D. Choi, The powersaving mechanism with periodic traffic indications in the IEEE 802.16 e/m, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 59 (2010), 319334. 
[10] 
E. Hwang, K. J. Kim and B. D. Choi, Performance Analysis of Power Saving Class of Type Ⅰ for Voice Service in TwoWay Communication in IEEE 802.16 e, IEICE Transactions on Communications, 95 (2012), 845856. 
[11] 
M. J. Karam and F. A. Tobagi, Analysis of the delay and jitter of voice traffic over the internet, In Proceedings of IEEE Twentieth Annual Joint Conference of The IEEE Computer and Communications Societies(ICCS), 2 (2001), 824–833. 
[12] 
L. Kong, G. K. W. Wong and D. H. K. Tsang, Performance study and system optimization on sleep mode operation in IEEE 802.16 e, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 8 (2009), 45184528. 
[13] 
Y. Y. Mihov, K. M. Kassev and B. P. Tsankov, Analysis and performance evaluation of the DRX mechanism for power saving in LTE, In Proceedings of IEEE 26th Convention of In Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel (IEEEI), (2014), 520–524. 
[14] 
Rumney and Moray, LTE and the Evolution to 4G Wireless: Design and Measurement Challenges, John Wiley & Sons, 2014. 
[15] 
G. Stea and A. Virdis, A Comprehensive Simulation Analysis of LTE Discontinuous Reception (DRX), Computer Networks, 73 (2014), 2240. doi: 10.1016/j.comnet.2014.07.014. 
[16] 
H. P. Stern, S. A. Mahmoud and K. K. Wong, A model for generating onoff patterns in conversational speech, including short silence gaps and the effects of interaction between parties, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 43 (1994), 10941100. 
[17] 
Y. Xiao, Energy saving mechanism in the IEEE 802.16 e wireless MAN, IEEE Communications Letters, 9 (2005), 595597. 
[18] 
Y. Xiao, Performance analysis of an energy saving mechanism in the IEEE 802. 16 e wireless MAN, In Proceedings of 3rd IEEE In Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC), (2006), 406–410. 
[19] 
C. C. Yang, J. Y. Chen, Y. T. Mai and H. H. Liu, Integrated power saving for relay node and user equipment in LTEA, International Journal of Communication Systems, 29 (2016), 13421364. 
[20] 
F. Zarai, K. B. Ali, M. S. Obaidat and L. Kamoun, Adaptive call admission control in 3GPP LTE networks, International Journal of Communication Systems, 27 (2014), 15221534. 
[21] 
Y. Zhang, Y. Xiao and V. C. M. Leung, Energy management analysis and enhancement in IEEE 802.16 e WirelessMAN, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 58 (2009), 37383752. 
[22] 
L. Zhou, H. Xu, H. Tian, Y. Gao, L. Du and L. Chen, Performance analysis of power saving mechanism with adjustable DRX cycles in 3GPP LTE, In Proceedings of IEEE 68th Vehicular Technology Conference, (2008), 1–5. 
[23] 
F. Zhu, W. Yiqun and Z. Niu, Delay analysis for sleepbased power saving mechanisms with downlink and uplink traffic, IEEE Communications Letters, 13 (2009), 615617. 
Parameters  Details 
Half frame Duration (ms)  
Duplexing  TDD 
cDRX ON duration timer (ms)  
DRX inactivity timer period (ms)  
Short DRX cycle length (ms)  
Long DRX cycle length (ms)  
Average silence period (ms) (in oneway communication) 

Average talking period (ms) (in oneway communication) 

Power consumption in awake mode (mJ/ms)  
Power consumption in sleep mode (mJ/ms)  
Additional energy consumption( 
Parameters  Details 
Half frame Duration (ms)  
Duplexing  TDD 
cDRX ON duration timer (ms)  
DRX inactivity timer period (ms)  
Short DRX cycle length (ms)  
Long DRX cycle length (ms)  
Average silence period (ms) (in oneway communication) 

Average talking period (ms) (in oneway communication) 

Power consumption in awake mode (mJ/ms)  
Power consumption in sleep mode (mJ/ms)  
Additional energy consumption( 
Length of Long DRX cycle(ms)  Oneway 
Twoway 
Length of Long DRX cycle(ms)  Oneway 
Twoway 
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