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Adjointbased parameter and state estimation in 1D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow system
Frequency $H_{2}/H_{∞}$ optimizing control for isolated microgrid based on IPSO algorithm
Key Lab of Industrial Computer Control Engineering of Hebei Province, College of Electric Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China 
Affected by the fluctuation of wind and load, large frequency change will occur in independently islanded winddiesel complementary microgrid. In order to suppress disturbance and ensure the normal operation of microgrid, a $H_{2}/H_{∞}$ controller optimized by improved particle swarm algorithm is designed to control the frequency of microgrid. $H_{2}/H_{∞}$ hybrid control can well balance the robustness and the performance of system. Particle swarm algorithm is improved. Adaptive method is used to adjust the inertia weight, and cloud fuzzy deduction is used to determine the learning factor. Improved particle swarm algorithm can solve the problem of local extremum, so the global optimal goal can be achieved. It is used to optimize $H_{2}/H_{∞}$ controller, so as to overcome the conservative property of solution by linear matrix inequality and improve the adaptive ability of controller. Simulation results show that with a $H_{2}/H_{∞}$ controller optimized by improved particle swarm algorithm, the frequency fluctuations caused by the wind and load is decreased, and the safety and stable operation of microgrid is guaranteed.
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H. Baek, J. Ryu and J. Oh, Optimal design of multistorage network for combined sewer overflow management using a diversityguided, cyclicnetworking particle swarm optimizerA case study in the Gunja subcatchment area, Korea, Expert Systems with Applications, 42 (2015), 69666975. 
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B. Xu, D. Chen and H. Zhang, Hamiltonian model and dynamic analyses for a hydroturbine governing system with fractional item and timelag, Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat, 47 (2017), 3547. 
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W. Du, Q. Jiang and J. Chen, Frequency Control Strategy of Distributed Generations Based on Virtual Inertia in a Microgrid, Automation of Electric Power Systems, 35 (2012), 2631. 
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H. Duan, Q. Luo and Y. Shi, Hybrid particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm for multiUAV Formation Reconfiguration, IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine, 8 (2013), 1627. 
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M. ElAbd, Preventing premature convergence in a PSO and EDA hybrid, IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, (2009), 30603066. 
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H. J. Jia, Y. Qi and Y. F. Mu, Frequency response of autonomous microgrid based on familyfriendly controllable loads, Science China Technological Sciences, 56 (2013), 693702. 
[9] 
H. Li, B. Fu, C. Yang, B. Zhao and X. Tang, Research on microgrid and its application in China, Proceedings of the CSEE, 32 (2012), 2431. 
[10] 
Y. Mi and C. Wang, Frequency optimization control for isolated photovoltaicdiesel hybrid microgrid based on load estimation, Proceedings of the CSEE, 33 (2013), 115121. 
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H. Li, D. Chen, H. Zhan, C. Wu and X. Wang, Hamiltonian analysis of a hydroenergy generation system in the transient of sudden load increasing, Applied Energy, 185 (2017), 244253. 
[12] 
J. J. Liang, A. K. Qin and P. N. Suganthan, Comprehensive learning particle swarm optimizer for global optimization of multimodal functions, IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 10 (2006), 281295. 
[13] 
H. Liu, L. Gao and Q. Pan, A hybrid particle swarm optimization with estimation of distribution algorithm for solving permutation flowshop scheduling problem, Expert Systems with Applications, 38 (2011), 43484360. 
[14] 
M. Liu, L. Guo and C. Wang, A coordinated operating control strategy for hybrid isolated microgrid including wind power, photovoltaic system, diesel generator, and battery storage, Dianli Xitong Zidonghua(Automation of Electric Power Systems), 36 (2012), 1924. 
[15] 
X. Ma, Y. Wu, H. Fang and Y. Sun, Optimal sizing of hybrid solarwind distributed generation in an islanded microgrid using improved bacterial foraging algorithm, Proceedings of the CSEE, 31 (2012), 1725. 
[16] 
Y. Ma, P. Yang and J. Wu, Hybrid control strategy of islanded microgrid with numerous distributed generators, Automation of Electric Power Systems, 39 (2015), 104109. 
[17] 
A. Nandar and C. Supriyadi, Robust PI control of smart controllable load for frequency stabilization of microgrid power system, Renewable Energy, 56 (2013), 1623. 
[18] 
M. J. Sanjari and G. B. Gharehpetian, Gametheoretic approach to cooperative control of distributed energy resources in islanded microgrid considering voltage and frequency stability, Neural Computing and Applications, 25 (2014), 343351. 
[19] 
C. Shen, W. Gu and Z. Wu, An Underfrequency Load Shedding Strategy for Islanded Microgrid, Automation of Electric Power Systems, 35 (2011), 4752. 
[20] 
L. Su, J. Zhang and L. Wang, Study on some key problems and technique related to microgrid, Power System Protection and Control, 19 (2010), 235239. 
[21] 
F. Van den Bergh and A. P. Engelbrecht, A cooperative approach to particle swarm optimization, IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 8 (2004), 225239. 
[22] 
J. Wang, Genetic particle swarm optimization based on estimation of distribution, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, German, 4688 (2007), 287296. 
[23] 
H. Wang and G. Li, Control strategy of microgrid with differend DG types, Electric Power Automation Equipment, 32 (2012), 1923. 
[24]  D. Wang, The optimal control theory ofand, Harbin Institute of Technology Press, Harbin, 2001. 
[25] 
B. Wu, D.Y. Chen and H. Zhang, Modeling and stability analysis of a fractionalorder francis hydroturbine governing system, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 75 (2015), 5061. doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2015.01.025. 
[26] 
X. Wu, X. Yin, X. Song and J. Wang, Reactive current allocation and control strategies improvement of low voltage ride though for doubly fed induction wind turbine generation system, High Voltage Apparatus, 49 (2013), 142149. 
[27] 
B. Xu, F. Wang, D. Chen and H. Zhang, Hamiltonian modeling of multihydroturbine governing systems with sharing common penstock and dynamic analyses under shock load, Energy Conversion and Management, 108 (2016), 478487. 
[28] 
B. Xu, D. Chen, H. Zhang and R. Zhou, Dynamic analysis and modeling of a novel fractionalorder hydroturbinegenerator unit, Nonlinear Dynamics, 81 (2015), 12631274. 
[29] 
B. Xue, M. Zhang and W. N. Browne, Particle swarm optimization for feature selection in classification: A multiobjective approach, IEEE Trans Cybern, 43 (2013), 16561671. 
[30]  L. Yu, Robust Control: The Processing of the Linear Matrix Inequality Approach, Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, 2002. 
[31] 
Q. Zhang, C. Peng and Y. Chen, A Control Strategy for Parallel Operation of Multiinverters in Microgrid, Proceedings of the CSEE, 32 (2012), 126132. 
show all references
References:
[1] 
C. W. Ahn, J. An and J. C. Yoo, Estimation of particle swarm distribution algorithms: Combining the benefits of PSO and EDAs, Information Sciences, 192 (2012), 109119. 
[2] 
H. Baek, J. Ryu and J. Oh, Optimal design of multistorage network for combined sewer overflow management using a diversityguided, cyclicnetworking particle swarm optimizerA case study in the Gunja subcatchment area, Korea, Expert Systems with Applications, 42 (2015), 69666975. 
[3] 
B. Xu, D. Chen and H. Zhang, Hamiltonian model and dynamic analyses for a hydroturbine governing system with fractional item and timelag, Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat, 47 (2017), 3547. 
[4] 
W. Du, Q. Jiang and J. Chen, Frequency Control Strategy of Distributed Generations Based on Virtual Inertia in a Microgrid, Automation of Electric Power Systems, 35 (2012), 2631. 
[5] 
H. Duan, Q. Luo and Y. Shi, Hybrid particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm for multiUAV Formation Reconfiguration, IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine, 8 (2013), 1627. 
[6] 
M. ElAbd, Preventing premature convergence in a PSO and EDA hybrid, IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, (2009), 30603066. 
[7] 
M. Iqbal and M. A. M. De Oca, An estimation of distribution particle swarm optimization algorithm, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, German, 4150 (2006), 7283. 
[8] 
H. J. Jia, Y. Qi and Y. F. Mu, Frequency response of autonomous microgrid based on familyfriendly controllable loads, Science China Technological Sciences, 56 (2013), 693702. 
[9] 
H. Li, B. Fu, C. Yang, B. Zhao and X. Tang, Research on microgrid and its application in China, Proceedings of the CSEE, 32 (2012), 2431. 
[10] 
Y. Mi and C. Wang, Frequency optimization control for isolated photovoltaicdiesel hybrid microgrid based on load estimation, Proceedings of the CSEE, 33 (2013), 115121. 
[11] 
H. Li, D. Chen, H. Zhan, C. Wu and X. Wang, Hamiltonian analysis of a hydroenergy generation system in the transient of sudden load increasing, Applied Energy, 185 (2017), 244253. 
[12] 
J. J. Liang, A. K. Qin and P. N. Suganthan, Comprehensive learning particle swarm optimizer for global optimization of multimodal functions, IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 10 (2006), 281295. 
[13] 
H. Liu, L. Gao and Q. Pan, A hybrid particle swarm optimization with estimation of distribution algorithm for solving permutation flowshop scheduling problem, Expert Systems with Applications, 38 (2011), 43484360. 
[14] 
M. Liu, L. Guo and C. Wang, A coordinated operating control strategy for hybrid isolated microgrid including wind power, photovoltaic system, diesel generator, and battery storage, Dianli Xitong Zidonghua(Automation of Electric Power Systems), 36 (2012), 1924. 
[15] 
X. Ma, Y. Wu, H. Fang and Y. Sun, Optimal sizing of hybrid solarwind distributed generation in an islanded microgrid using improved bacterial foraging algorithm, Proceedings of the CSEE, 31 (2012), 1725. 
[16] 
Y. Ma, P. Yang and J. Wu, Hybrid control strategy of islanded microgrid with numerous distributed generators, Automation of Electric Power Systems, 39 (2015), 104109. 
[17] 
A. Nandar and C. Supriyadi, Robust PI control of smart controllable load for frequency stabilization of microgrid power system, Renewable Energy, 56 (2013), 1623. 
[18] 
M. J. Sanjari and G. B. Gharehpetian, Gametheoretic approach to cooperative control of distributed energy resources in islanded microgrid considering voltage and frequency stability, Neural Computing and Applications, 25 (2014), 343351. 
[19] 
C. Shen, W. Gu and Z. Wu, An Underfrequency Load Shedding Strategy for Islanded Microgrid, Automation of Electric Power Systems, 35 (2011), 4752. 
[20] 
L. Su, J. Zhang and L. Wang, Study on some key problems and technique related to microgrid, Power System Protection and Control, 19 (2010), 235239. 
[21] 
F. Van den Bergh and A. P. Engelbrecht, A cooperative approach to particle swarm optimization, IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 8 (2004), 225239. 
[22] 
J. Wang, Genetic particle swarm optimization based on estimation of distribution, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, German, 4688 (2007), 287296. 
[23] 
H. Wang and G. Li, Control strategy of microgrid with differend DG types, Electric Power Automation Equipment, 32 (2012), 1923. 
[24]  D. Wang, The optimal control theory ofand, Harbin Institute of Technology Press, Harbin, 2001. 
[25] 
B. Wu, D.Y. Chen and H. Zhang, Modeling and stability analysis of a fractionalorder francis hydroturbine governing system, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 75 (2015), 5061. doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2015.01.025. 
[26] 
X. Wu, X. Yin, X. Song and J. Wang, Reactive current allocation and control strategies improvement of low voltage ride though for doubly fed induction wind turbine generation system, High Voltage Apparatus, 49 (2013), 142149. 
[27] 
B. Xu, F. Wang, D. Chen and H. Zhang, Hamiltonian modeling of multihydroturbine governing systems with sharing common penstock and dynamic analyses under shock load, Energy Conversion and Management, 108 (2016), 478487. 
[28] 
B. Xu, D. Chen, H. Zhang and R. Zhou, Dynamic analysis and modeling of a novel fractionalorder hydroturbinegenerator unit, Nonlinear Dynamics, 81 (2015), 12631274. 
[29] 
B. Xue, M. Zhang and W. N. Browne, Particle swarm optimization for feature selection in classification: A multiobjective approach, IEEE Trans Cybern, 43 (2013), 16561671. 
[30]  L. Yu, Robust Control: The Processing of the Linear Matrix Inequality Approach, Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, 2002. 
[31] 
Q. Zhang, C. Peng and Y. Chen, A Control Strategy for Parallel Operation of Multiinverters in Microgrid, Proceedings of the CSEE, 32 (2012), 126132. 
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