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## A dynamical system study for the ecological development of mineral resources in minority areas

 1 College of Management Science, Chengdu University of Technology, 1#, Dongsanlu, Erxianqiao, Chengdu 610059, China 2 Post-doctorate R & D Base of Management Science and Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, 1#, Dongsanlu, Erxianqiao, Chengdu 610059, China 3 Business School, Sichuan Normal University, No.1819, Section 2, Chenglonglu, Longquan Yi, Chengdu 610101, China

* Corresponding author: Zhong Wang

Received  August 2017 Revised  January 2018 Published  November 2018

The distribution of mineral resources in China is mainly concentrated in minority areas. However, the technology of mineral resources development in minority areas is relatively backward and the utilization rate isn't high. Unreasonable exploitation for mineral resources has caused tremendous damage of mining environment, which restricts the sustainable, healthy and stable development of mining areas. Therefore, how to construct the ecological industrial chain of mineral resources in minority areas has become an important issue of mining sustainable development. In this paper, a SD model with the characteristic of minority areas is established by constructing the dynamical system flowchart that takes mineral resources-environment-economy-society (MEES system) as the main research object based on system dynamics simulation, combination determining weights, and fuzzy sets, etc. In addition, taking Tibetan minority areas for an example, this paper predicts the tendency of the MEES system in the region. Meanwhile, this paper designs four different development modes to provide the operable choice and reference for exploiting the mineral resources in minority areas.

Citation: Yuyan Luo, Yong Qin, Zhong Wang, Jun Wang. A dynamical system study for the ecological development of mineral resources in minority areas. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - S, doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2019074
##### References:
 [1] F. Deng, Optimization of resource utilization of integrated mineral resources, Land and Resources, (2008), 25-27. [2] J. Dubiński, Sustainable development of mining mineral resources, Journal of Sustainable Mining, 12 (2013), 1-6. [3] Z. Hu, Constraints on economic development in minority areas and countermeasures, Science & Technology, Economy & Market, (2015), 128-129. [4] Q. Huang, K. Cen and X. Zhang, On the establishment of environmental protection of mineral resources industry chain, Resource Development & Market, 22 (2006), 184-187. [5] S. Li and C. Yang, Theory of recycling economy and exploitation and utilization of mineral resources in China, Science & Technology Progress and Policy, 23 (2006), 48-49. [6] L. Li, F. Huang and S. Yu, Simulation and optimization of coal industry chain system based on SD-MOP, Journal of China University of Geosciences(Social Sciences Edition), 12 (2012), 24-31. [7] Y. Liang, Research on the cyclic economic model of mineral resource development and utilization, China Mining Magazine, 17 (2008), 22-24. [8] J. Mei, Study on compensation mechanism of mineral resources development in ethnic areas, Journal of Wuhan University of Technology (Social Sciences Edition), 26 (2013), 779-785. [9] D. Pan, Discussion on the evaluation of green mining in China, Resources & Industries, 14 (2012), 106-109. [10] P. C. Sauer and S. Seuring, Sustainable supply chain management for minerals, J. Cleaner Prod., 151 (2017), 235-249. [11] J. Sha and L. Ou, A study on the evaluation index system of mining circular economy, Environmental Protection, (2008), 33-36. [12] J. Sun and W. Zhu, Integrated path and mode of ecological industrial chain in mining area, Machine Design and Manufacturing Engineering, (2010), 47-49. [13] C. Wang and X. liu, The development of circular economy and rich and poor in the development of recycling economy, Natural Resource Economics of China, 20 (2007), 12-14. [14] Y. Wang, The development direction of China's metal mineral resources development cycle, Metal Mine, (2005), 1-3. [15] W. Wang, X. Lei, X. Yu and L. Chen, Study on water resources carrying capacity based on SD model-a case study of water resources carrying capacity in Qinghai Gonghe Basin, Journal of Water Resources and Water Engineering, 16 (2005), 11-15. [16] C. Wang and Y. Zhu, Study on ecological compensation standard for coal resource development, Natural Resource Economics of China, 31 (2014), 92-97. [17] Z. Wang and Z. Wang, Research on the development and utilization of mining resources in mineral resources, Value Engineering, (2015), 166-167. [18] Q. Xia and Y. Liang, Development and utilization of mineral resources for recycling economy, Journal of Natural Resources, 21 (2006), 288-292. [19] K. Xiao, S. Xing, L. Bagas, L. Sun, N. Li, J. Yin, N. Cui, Y. Cong, J. Li, Y. Chen and T. Ye, The China national mineral assessment initiative, Ore Geol. Rev., 91 (2017), 1084-1093. [20] J. Xu and B. Li, The model of low-carbon integrated integration in the development of circular economy, China Population, Resources and Environment, (2010), 1-8. [21] J. Yan and M. Hou, Research on the dynamic evolution of the distribution of technological innovation capacity of China's mineral resources industry-based on Kernel density and markov chain analysis, Science and Technology Management Research, 35 (2015), 88-93. [22] J. Yan and B. Li, Research on the ecological development of mineral resources based on circular economy, Science and Technology Management Research, 303 (2014), 95-99. [23] J. Yan, Ecological economic system of regional mineral resources development and its simulation analysis, Journal of Natural Resources, 24 (2009), 1335-1342. [24] J. Yan, Y. Duan and M. Hou, An empirical study on the dynamic evolution of technological innovation capability in the context of transition: a case study of China's mineral resources industry, Science and Technology Management Research, 36 (2016), 19-25. [25] C. Zhang, Construction of ecological-production-life carrying capacity evaluation index system in arid oasis zone, Arid Zone Research, 18 (2001), 7-12. [26] S. Zhang, K. Xiao, Y. Zhu and N. Cui, A prediction model for important mineral resources in China, Ore Geol. Rev., 91 (2017), 1094-1101. [27] X. Zhong and H. Zhong, Model and policy analysis of the development cycle economy of mineral resources industry-taking Inner Mongolia as an example, Journal of Inner Mongolia University: Humanities and Social Science, 41 (2009), 64-69. [28] R. Zhou, Y. He and Z. Tan, Discussion on the development model of nonferrous metal industry cluster-taking ganzhou area of jiangxi province as an example, Enterprise Economy, (2008), 12-15.

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##### References:
 [1] F. Deng, Optimization of resource utilization of integrated mineral resources, Land and Resources, (2008), 25-27. [2] J. Dubiński, Sustainable development of mining mineral resources, Journal of Sustainable Mining, 12 (2013), 1-6. [3] Z. Hu, Constraints on economic development in minority areas and countermeasures, Science & Technology, Economy & Market, (2015), 128-129. [4] Q. Huang, K. Cen and X. Zhang, On the establishment of environmental protection of mineral resources industry chain, Resource Development & Market, 22 (2006), 184-187. [5] S. Li and C. Yang, Theory of recycling economy and exploitation and utilization of mineral resources in China, Science & Technology Progress and Policy, 23 (2006), 48-49. [6] L. Li, F. Huang and S. Yu, Simulation and optimization of coal industry chain system based on SD-MOP, Journal of China University of Geosciences(Social Sciences Edition), 12 (2012), 24-31. [7] Y. Liang, Research on the cyclic economic model of mineral resource development and utilization, China Mining Magazine, 17 (2008), 22-24. [8] J. Mei, Study on compensation mechanism of mineral resources development in ethnic areas, Journal of Wuhan University of Technology (Social Sciences Edition), 26 (2013), 779-785. [9] D. Pan, Discussion on the evaluation of green mining in China, Resources & Industries, 14 (2012), 106-109. [10] P. C. Sauer and S. Seuring, Sustainable supply chain management for minerals, J. Cleaner Prod., 151 (2017), 235-249. [11] J. Sha and L. Ou, A study on the evaluation index system of mining circular economy, Environmental Protection, (2008), 33-36. [12] J. Sun and W. Zhu, Integrated path and mode of ecological industrial chain in mining area, Machine Design and Manufacturing Engineering, (2010), 47-49. [13] C. Wang and X. liu, The development of circular economy and rich and poor in the development of recycling economy, Natural Resource Economics of China, 20 (2007), 12-14. [14] Y. Wang, The development direction of China's metal mineral resources development cycle, Metal Mine, (2005), 1-3. [15] W. Wang, X. Lei, X. Yu and L. Chen, Study on water resources carrying capacity based on SD model-a case study of water resources carrying capacity in Qinghai Gonghe Basin, Journal of Water Resources and Water Engineering, 16 (2005), 11-15. [16] C. Wang and Y. Zhu, Study on ecological compensation standard for coal resource development, Natural Resource Economics of China, 31 (2014), 92-97. [17] Z. Wang and Z. Wang, Research on the development and utilization of mining resources in mineral resources, Value Engineering, (2015), 166-167. [18] Q. Xia and Y. Liang, Development and utilization of mineral resources for recycling economy, Journal of Natural Resources, 21 (2006), 288-292. [19] K. Xiao, S. Xing, L. Bagas, L. Sun, N. Li, J. Yin, N. Cui, Y. Cong, J. Li, Y. Chen and T. Ye, The China national mineral assessment initiative, Ore Geol. Rev., 91 (2017), 1084-1093. [20] J. Xu and B. Li, The model of low-carbon integrated integration in the development of circular economy, China Population, Resources and Environment, (2010), 1-8. [21] J. Yan and M. Hou, Research on the dynamic evolution of the distribution of technological innovation capacity of China's mineral resources industry-based on Kernel density and markov chain analysis, Science and Technology Management Research, 35 (2015), 88-93. [22] J. Yan and B. Li, Research on the ecological development of mineral resources based on circular economy, Science and Technology Management Research, 303 (2014), 95-99. [23] J. Yan, Ecological economic system of regional mineral resources development and its simulation analysis, Journal of Natural Resources, 24 (2009), 1335-1342. [24] J. Yan, Y. Duan and M. Hou, An empirical study on the dynamic evolution of technological innovation capability in the context of transition: a case study of China's mineral resources industry, Science and Technology Management Research, 36 (2016), 19-25. [25] C. Zhang, Construction of ecological-production-life carrying capacity evaluation index system in arid oasis zone, Arid Zone Research, 18 (2001), 7-12. [26] S. Zhang, K. Xiao, Y. Zhu and N. Cui, A prediction model for important mineral resources in China, Ore Geol. Rev., 91 (2017), 1094-1101. [27] X. Zhong and H. Zhong, Model and policy analysis of the development cycle economy of mineral resources industry-taking Inner Mongolia as an example, Journal of Inner Mongolia University: Humanities and Social Science, 41 (2009), 64-69. [28] R. Zhou, Y. He and Z. Tan, Discussion on the development model of nonferrous metal industry cluster-taking ganzhou area of jiangxi province as an example, Enterprise Economy, (2008), 12-15.
The relationship between mineral resources development, eco-economic and social systems in minority areas
The MEES system model
Sensitivity analysis of policy of ethnic environmental improvement
The simulation result of Annual output
The simulation result of Total population
The simulation result of Regional GDP
The simulation result of Discharge of exhaust fumes
Mineral resources indicators
 Parameter name Unit Proven mineral reserves $10^{4}$ tons Added proven reserves $10^{4}$ tons / year Impact factor of exploration influence non-dimension Added proven reserves for investment per unit $10^{4}$tons / $10^{8}$yuan Mining investment $10^{8}$ yuan/year Annual output $10^{4}$ tons Annual added output $10^{4}$ tons / year Impact factors of mining technology non-dimension National mineral development policy non-dimension Mining output value $10^{8}$ yuan/year
 Parameter name Unit Proven mineral reserves $10^{4}$ tons Added proven reserves $10^{4}$ tons / year Impact factor of exploration influence non-dimension Added proven reserves for investment per unit $10^{4}$tons / $10^{8}$yuan Mining investment $10^{8}$ yuan/year Annual output $10^{4}$ tons Annual added output $10^{4}$ tons / year Impact factors of mining technology non-dimension National mineral development policy non-dimension Mining output value $10^{8}$ yuan/year
Ecological environmental indicators
 Parameter name Unit Discharge amount of wastewater $10^{4}$ tons Discharge of exhaust fumes $10^{4}$ tons Discharge amount of solid waste $10^{4}$ tons Acreage of disrupted land $10^{4}$ hectares Environmental investment $10^{8}$ yuan /year Environmental pollution non-dimension Policy of ethnic environmental improvement non-dimension Ratio of environmental investment in mining areas % Environmental awareness non-dimension
 Parameter name Unit Discharge amount of wastewater $10^{4}$ tons Discharge of exhaust fumes $10^{4}$ tons Discharge amount of solid waste $10^{4}$ tons Acreage of disrupted land $10^{4}$ hectares Environmental investment $10^{8}$ yuan /year Environmental pollution non-dimension Policy of ethnic environmental improvement non-dimension Ratio of environmental investment in mining areas % Environmental awareness non-dimension