doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2019063

Atmospheric environmental quality assessment method based on analytic hierarchy process

1. 

Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650000, China

2. 

Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650000, China

* Corresponding author: Wendai Lv

Received  July 2017 Revised  January 2018 Published  November 2018

Fund Project: The first author is supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Kunming University of Science and Technology (Provincial talent training project) No. KKSY201508012, and the Science Fund Projects of Yunnan Provincial Education Department, No.2017ZZX160

Atmospheric environmental quality significantly influences the environment of people's life and the development of modern society. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to accurately assess atmospheric environmental quality. Firstly, we propose and analyze two indicator systems for atmospheric environmental quality assessment, that is, 1) the standard air pollution index, and 2) an index system which covers different types of influencing factors related to air quality. In particular, the proposed index system is made up of seven parts, that is, 1) Climate and meteorology, 2) Economic and social development, 3) Industrial structure, 4) Energy consumption, 5) Industrial pollutant discharge, 6) The greening of the city, and 7) Environmental protection construction. Secondly, we propose a hybrid AHP-Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model to evaluate the atmospheric environmental quality. In the hybrid model, AHP is used to calculate the weight coefficient of the index system, and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model is exploited to describe the vagueness of remark in the evaluation process. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that using the proposed index system, the hybrid AHP-Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model is able to assess air quality more accurately than the modified API.

Citation: Wendai Lv, Siping Ji. Atmospheric environmental quality assessment method based on analytic hierarchy process. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - S, doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2019063
References:
[1]

K. AchakzaiS. KhalidM. AdreesA. BibiS. AliR. Nawaz and M. Rizwan, Air pollution tolerance index of plants around brick kilns in rawalpindi, pakistan, Journal of Environmental Management, 190 (2017), 252-258.

[2]

Y. AlomairI. AhmadA. AlghamdiF. e Amin and S. S. Alhaznawi, Evaluating defense simulation packages using analytic hierarchy process, Journal of Internet Technology, 17 (2016), 831-838.

[3]

J. BaoJ. ZhangF. LiC. Liu and S. Shi, Social benefits of the mine occupational health and safety management systems of mines in china and sweden based on a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process: A comparative study, Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, 31 (2016), 3113-3120.

[4]

N. BeiL. ZhaoB. XiaoN. Meng and T. Feng, Impacts of local circulations on the wintertime air pollution in the guanzhong basin, china, Science of the Total Environment, 592 (2017), 373-390.

[5]

N. BiglarijooS. A. MirbagheriM. Ehteshami and S. M. Ghaznavi, Optimization of fenton process using response surface methodology and analytic hierarchy process for landfill leachate treatment, Process Safety & Environmental Protection, 104 (2016), 150-160.

[6]

R. L. Boennec and F. Salladarré, The impact of air pollution and noise on the real estate market. the case of the 2013 european green capital: Nantes, france, Ecological Economics, 138 (2017), 82-89.

[7]

B. K. ButlandR. W. AtkinsonS. CrichtonB. BarrattS. BeeversA. SpiridouU. HoangF. J. Kelly and C. D. Wolfe, Air pollution and the incidence of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke in the south london stroke register: a case-cross-over analysis, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 71 (2017), 707-712.

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Ö. ÇaprazA. Deniz and N. Doǧan, Effects of air pollution on respiratory hospital admissions in İstanbul, turkey, 2013 to 2015, Chemosphere, 181 (2017), 544-550.

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M. A. CarvalhoL. S. BernardesK. HettfleischL. D. PastroS. E. VieiraS. R. SaldivaP. H. Saldiva and R. P. Francisco, Associations of maternal personal exposure to air pollution on fetal weight and fetoplacental doppler: a prospective cohort study, Reproductive Toxicology, 125 (2017), 753-759.

[10]

W. ChenF. Tu and P. Zheng, A transnational networked public sphere of air pollution: analysis of a twitter network of pm2.5 from the risk society perspective, Information Communication & Society, 20 (2017), 1005-1023.

[11]

H. Chu, G. Xu, N. Yasufuku, Z. Yu, P. Liu, and J. Wang, Risk assessment of water inrush in karst tunnels based on two-class fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 10 (2017), 179.

[12]

T. GaoJ. Y. SongJ. H. Ding and D. Q. Wang, Clustering algorithm based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation for wireless sensor networks, International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, 24 (2017), 1-13.

[13]

Y. HanZ. GengZ. Wang and P. Mu, Performance analysis and optimal temperature selection of ethylene cracking furnaces: A data envelopment analysis cross-model integrated analytic hierarchy process, Journal of Analytical & Applied Pyrolysis, 122 (2016), 35-44.

[14]

S. KimiagariS. KeivanpourF. Jolai and M. Moazami, Application of fuzzy group analytic hierarchy process in partner selection of international joint venture projects, Scientia Iranica, 23 (2016), 2959-2976.

[15]

M. F. La RussaP. FermoV. ComiteC. M. BelfioreD. BarcaA. CerioniS. M. DeL. F. BarbagalloM. Ricca and S. A. Ruffolo, The oceanus statue of the fontana di trevi (rome): The analysis of black crust as a tool to investigate the urban air pollution and its impact on the stone degradation., Science of the Total Environment, 593 (2017), 297-309.

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M. LeeM. BrauerP. WongR. TangT. H. TsuiC. ChoiW. ChengP. C. LaiL. Tian and T. Q. Thach, Land use regression modelling of air pollution in high density high rise cities: A case study in hong kong, Science of the Total Environment, 592 (2017), 306-315.

[17]

J. LiQ. ZhangF. Yan and M. Zhong, A cloud model-based multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation approach for financing credit of scientific & technological small-medium enterprises, Journal of Difference Equations & Applications, 23 (2017), 443-456. doi: 10.1080/10236198.2016.1250751.

[18]

M. K. LiY. K. LiuM. J. PengC. L. Xie and L. Q. Yang, The decision making method of task arrangement based on analytic hierarchy process for nuclear safety in radiation field, Progress in Nuclear Energy, 93 (2016), 318-326.

[19]

N. MadhloumB. G. JanssenD. S. MartensN. D. SaenenE. BijnensW. GyselaersJ. PendersC. VanpouckeW. Lefebvre and M. Plusquin, Cord plasma insulin and in utero exposure to ambient air pollution, Environment International, 105 (2017), 126-132.

[20]

A. C. MühlbacherS. Bethge and A. Kaczynski, Treatment after acute coronary syndrome: Analysis of patient's priorities with analytic hierarchy process, International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 32 (2016), 284-291.

[21]

R. N. H. A.Lee and L. M. T., Evaluation performance of time series approach for forecasting air pollution index in johor, malaysia, Sains Malaysiana, 45 (2016), 1625-1633.

[22]

L. NiJ. JiangZ. WangJ. YaoY. Song and Y. Yu, The organic peroxides instability rating research based on adiabatic calorimetric approaches and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process for inherent safety evaluation, Process Safety Progress, 35 (2016), 200-207.

[23]

I. C. Nicu, Cultural heritage assessment and vulnerability using analytic hierarchy process and geographic information systems (valea oii catchment, north-eastern romania). an approach to historical maps, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2 (2016), 103-111.

[24]

M. J. NoorS. SultanaS. FatimaM. AhmadM. ZafarM. SarfrazM. A. BalkhyourS. Z. Safi and M. A. Ashraf, Estimation of anticipated performance index and air pollution tolerance index and of vegetation around the marble industrial areas of potwar region: bioindicators of plant pollution response (retraction of vol 37, pg 441, 2015), Environmental Geochemistry & Health, 39 (2017), 705-705.

[25]

M. Ozkok, Investigation of welder selection parameters based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process in shipbuilding, International Journal of Maritime Engineering, 158 (2016), A239-A250.

[26]

A. K. PandeyM. Pandey and B. D. Tripathi, Assessment of air pollution tolerance index of some plants to develop vertical gardens near street canyons of a polluted tropical city., Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety, 134 (2016), 358-364.

[27]

D. PanepintoE. Brizio and G. Genon, Atmospheric pollutants and air quality effects: limitation costs and environmental advantages (a cost-benefit approach), Clean Technologies & Environmental Policy, 16 (2014), 1805-1813.

[28]

S. A. Pirintsos and S. Loppi, Biomonitoring atmospheric pollution: the challenge of times in environmental policy on air quality., Environmental Pollution, 151 (2008), 269-271.

[29]

A. PitchikaR. HampelK. WolfU. KrausJ. CyrysW. BabischA. Peters and A. Schneider, Long-term associations of modeled and self-reported measures of exposure to air pollution and noise at residence on prevalent hypertension and blood pressure, Science of the Total Environment, 593 (2017), 337-346.

[30]

K. V. Prasad, K. Vajravelu, H. Vaidya, et al. MHD flow and heat transfer in a nanofluid over a slender elastic sheet with variable thickness, Results in Physics, 7 (2017), 1462–1474.

[31]

P. RenZ. Xu and J. Gu, Assessments of the effectiveness of an earthquake emergency plan implementation with hesitant analytic hierarchy process, International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making, 15 (2016), 1367-1389.

[32]

P. RenZ. Xu and H. Liao, Intuitionistic multiplicative analytic hierarchy process in group decision making, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 101 (2016), 513-524.

[33]

L.-U. Sergio and D. Rosa, High-accuracy approximation of piecewise smooth functions using the truncation and encode approach, 2 (2017), 367–384.

[34]

M. ShengJ. LiuX. WangY. ZhangH. Sun and J. Li, On transmission capacity region of d2d integrated cellular networks with interference management, IEEE Transactions on Communications, 13 (2017), 136-148.

[35]

Y. ShiF. LinL. Dai and X. Jing, Medical cloud computing risk prediction method based on analytic hierarchy process and mrhga-rbf neural networking optimization, Journal of Medical Imaging & Health Informatics, 6 (2016), 1076-1087.

[36]

C. StihiC. RadulescuI. D. DulamaO. C. Bute and I. A. Bucurica, Characterization of heavy metals atmospheric deposition for assessment of environmental quality in urban and surrounding areas, Revista de Chimie -Bucharest- Original Edition-, 68 (2017), 802-804.

[37]

L. SuiY. JuY. YangY. Yang and A. Li, A quantification method for shale fracability based on analytic hierarchy process, Energy, 115 (2016), 637-645.

[38]

C. TanS. LuY. WangY. ZhuT. ShiM. LinZ. DengZ. WangN. Song and S. Li, Long-term exposure to high air pollution induces cumulative dna damages in traffic policemen, Science of the Total Environment, 593 (2017), 330-336.

[39]

J. TanK. Y. LowN. M. N. SulaimanR. R. Tan and M. A. B. Promentilla, Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fahp) for multi-criteria selection of microalgae harvesting and drying processes, Clean Technologies & Environmental Policy, 18 (2016), 2049-2063.

[40]

N. WestergaardU. GehringR. Slama and M. Pedersen, Ambient air pollution and low birth weight - are some women more vulnerable than others?, Environment International, 104 (2017), 146-154.

[41]

X. T. ZengY. F. TongL. CuiX. M. KongY. N. ShengL. Chen and Y. P. Li, Population-production-pollution nexus based air pollution management model for alleviating the atmospheric crisis in beijing, china, Journal of Environmental Management, 197 (2017), 507-521.

[42]

S. Y. Zeraatkish, Utilization of analytic hierarchy process (ahp) to meet management objectives in fishery industry of the sea of oman, Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 15 (2016), 1379-1387.

[43]

C. Zhang and Z. Yang, Evaluation of urban agricultural landscape based on analytic hierarchy process, Agro Food Industry Hi Tech, 27 (2016), 42-46.

[44]

L. Y. ZhaoH. HuangZ. J. GuanH. Y. WangJ. D. ZhangM. S. LiuF. Li and C. Y. Liu, Efficiency evaluation of an internet plus university student affairs system based on fuzzy theory and the analytic hierarchy process, Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, 31 (2016), 3121-3130.

[45]

S. H. ZyoudH. ShaheenS. SamhanA. RabiF. Al-Wadi and D. Fuchs-Hanusch, Electronic offprint utilizing analytic hierarchy process (ahp) for decision making in water loss management of intermittent water supply systems, Journal of Water Sanitation & Hygiene for Development, 6 (2016), 534-546.

show all references

References:
[1]

K. AchakzaiS. KhalidM. AdreesA. BibiS. AliR. Nawaz and M. Rizwan, Air pollution tolerance index of plants around brick kilns in rawalpindi, pakistan, Journal of Environmental Management, 190 (2017), 252-258.

[2]

Y. AlomairI. AhmadA. AlghamdiF. e Amin and S. S. Alhaznawi, Evaluating defense simulation packages using analytic hierarchy process, Journal of Internet Technology, 17 (2016), 831-838.

[3]

J. BaoJ. ZhangF. LiC. Liu and S. Shi, Social benefits of the mine occupational health and safety management systems of mines in china and sweden based on a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process: A comparative study, Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, 31 (2016), 3113-3120.

[4]

N. BeiL. ZhaoB. XiaoN. Meng and T. Feng, Impacts of local circulations on the wintertime air pollution in the guanzhong basin, china, Science of the Total Environment, 592 (2017), 373-390.

[5]

N. BiglarijooS. A. MirbagheriM. Ehteshami and S. M. Ghaznavi, Optimization of fenton process using response surface methodology and analytic hierarchy process for landfill leachate treatment, Process Safety & Environmental Protection, 104 (2016), 150-160.

[6]

R. L. Boennec and F. Salladarré, The impact of air pollution and noise on the real estate market. the case of the 2013 european green capital: Nantes, france, Ecological Economics, 138 (2017), 82-89.

[7]

B. K. ButlandR. W. AtkinsonS. CrichtonB. BarrattS. BeeversA. SpiridouU. HoangF. J. Kelly and C. D. Wolfe, Air pollution and the incidence of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke in the south london stroke register: a case-cross-over analysis, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 71 (2017), 707-712.

[8]

Ö. ÇaprazA. Deniz and N. Doǧan, Effects of air pollution on respiratory hospital admissions in İstanbul, turkey, 2013 to 2015, Chemosphere, 181 (2017), 544-550.

[9]

M. A. CarvalhoL. S. BernardesK. HettfleischL. D. PastroS. E. VieiraS. R. SaldivaP. H. Saldiva and R. P. Francisco, Associations of maternal personal exposure to air pollution on fetal weight and fetoplacental doppler: a prospective cohort study, Reproductive Toxicology, 125 (2017), 753-759.

[10]

W. ChenF. Tu and P. Zheng, A transnational networked public sphere of air pollution: analysis of a twitter network of pm2.5 from the risk society perspective, Information Communication & Society, 20 (2017), 1005-1023.

[11]

H. Chu, G. Xu, N. Yasufuku, Z. Yu, P. Liu, and J. Wang, Risk assessment of water inrush in karst tunnels based on two-class fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 10 (2017), 179.

[12]

T. GaoJ. Y. SongJ. H. Ding and D. Q. Wang, Clustering algorithm based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation for wireless sensor networks, International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, 24 (2017), 1-13.

[13]

Y. HanZ. GengZ. Wang and P. Mu, Performance analysis and optimal temperature selection of ethylene cracking furnaces: A data envelopment analysis cross-model integrated analytic hierarchy process, Journal of Analytical & Applied Pyrolysis, 122 (2016), 35-44.

[14]

S. KimiagariS. KeivanpourF. Jolai and M. Moazami, Application of fuzzy group analytic hierarchy process in partner selection of international joint venture projects, Scientia Iranica, 23 (2016), 2959-2976.

[15]

M. F. La RussaP. FermoV. ComiteC. M. BelfioreD. BarcaA. CerioniS. M. DeL. F. BarbagalloM. Ricca and S. A. Ruffolo, The oceanus statue of the fontana di trevi (rome): The analysis of black crust as a tool to investigate the urban air pollution and its impact on the stone degradation., Science of the Total Environment, 593 (2017), 297-309.

[16]

M. LeeM. BrauerP. WongR. TangT. H. TsuiC. ChoiW. ChengP. C. LaiL. Tian and T. Q. Thach, Land use regression modelling of air pollution in high density high rise cities: A case study in hong kong, Science of the Total Environment, 592 (2017), 306-315.

[17]

J. LiQ. ZhangF. Yan and M. Zhong, A cloud model-based multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation approach for financing credit of scientific & technological small-medium enterprises, Journal of Difference Equations & Applications, 23 (2017), 443-456. doi: 10.1080/10236198.2016.1250751.

[18]

M. K. LiY. K. LiuM. J. PengC. L. Xie and L. Q. Yang, The decision making method of task arrangement based on analytic hierarchy process for nuclear safety in radiation field, Progress in Nuclear Energy, 93 (2016), 318-326.

[19]

N. MadhloumB. G. JanssenD. S. MartensN. D. SaenenE. BijnensW. GyselaersJ. PendersC. VanpouckeW. Lefebvre and M. Plusquin, Cord plasma insulin and in utero exposure to ambient air pollution, Environment International, 105 (2017), 126-132.

[20]

A. C. MühlbacherS. Bethge and A. Kaczynski, Treatment after acute coronary syndrome: Analysis of patient's priorities with analytic hierarchy process, International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 32 (2016), 284-291.

[21]

R. N. H. A.Lee and L. M. T., Evaluation performance of time series approach for forecasting air pollution index in johor, malaysia, Sains Malaysiana, 45 (2016), 1625-1633.

[22]

L. NiJ. JiangZ. WangJ. YaoY. Song and Y. Yu, The organic peroxides instability rating research based on adiabatic calorimetric approaches and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process for inherent safety evaluation, Process Safety Progress, 35 (2016), 200-207.

[23]

I. C. Nicu, Cultural heritage assessment and vulnerability using analytic hierarchy process and geographic information systems (valea oii catchment, north-eastern romania). an approach to historical maps, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2 (2016), 103-111.

[24]

M. J. NoorS. SultanaS. FatimaM. AhmadM. ZafarM. SarfrazM. A. BalkhyourS. Z. Safi and M. A. Ashraf, Estimation of anticipated performance index and air pollution tolerance index and of vegetation around the marble industrial areas of potwar region: bioindicators of plant pollution response (retraction of vol 37, pg 441, 2015), Environmental Geochemistry & Health, 39 (2017), 705-705.

[25]

M. Ozkok, Investigation of welder selection parameters based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process in shipbuilding, International Journal of Maritime Engineering, 158 (2016), A239-A250.

[26]

A. K. PandeyM. Pandey and B. D. Tripathi, Assessment of air pollution tolerance index of some plants to develop vertical gardens near street canyons of a polluted tropical city., Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety, 134 (2016), 358-364.

[27]

D. PanepintoE. Brizio and G. Genon, Atmospheric pollutants and air quality effects: limitation costs and environmental advantages (a cost-benefit approach), Clean Technologies & Environmental Policy, 16 (2014), 1805-1813.

[28]

S. A. Pirintsos and S. Loppi, Biomonitoring atmospheric pollution: the challenge of times in environmental policy on air quality., Environmental Pollution, 151 (2008), 269-271.

[29]

A. PitchikaR. HampelK. WolfU. KrausJ. CyrysW. BabischA. Peters and A. Schneider, Long-term associations of modeled and self-reported measures of exposure to air pollution and noise at residence on prevalent hypertension and blood pressure, Science of the Total Environment, 593 (2017), 337-346.

[30]

K. V. Prasad, K. Vajravelu, H. Vaidya, et al. MHD flow and heat transfer in a nanofluid over a slender elastic sheet with variable thickness, Results in Physics, 7 (2017), 1462–1474.

[31]

P. RenZ. Xu and J. Gu, Assessments of the effectiveness of an earthquake emergency plan implementation with hesitant analytic hierarchy process, International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making, 15 (2016), 1367-1389.

[32]

P. RenZ. Xu and H. Liao, Intuitionistic multiplicative analytic hierarchy process in group decision making, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 101 (2016), 513-524.

[33]

L.-U. Sergio and D. Rosa, High-accuracy approximation of piecewise smooth functions using the truncation and encode approach, 2 (2017), 367–384.

[34]

M. ShengJ. LiuX. WangY. ZhangH. Sun and J. Li, On transmission capacity region of d2d integrated cellular networks with interference management, IEEE Transactions on Communications, 13 (2017), 136-148.

[35]

Y. ShiF. LinL. Dai and X. Jing, Medical cloud computing risk prediction method based on analytic hierarchy process and mrhga-rbf neural networking optimization, Journal of Medical Imaging & Health Informatics, 6 (2016), 1076-1087.

[36]

C. StihiC. RadulescuI. D. DulamaO. C. Bute and I. A. Bucurica, Characterization of heavy metals atmospheric deposition for assessment of environmental quality in urban and surrounding areas, Revista de Chimie -Bucharest- Original Edition-, 68 (2017), 802-804.

[37]

L. SuiY. JuY. YangY. Yang and A. Li, A quantification method for shale fracability based on analytic hierarchy process, Energy, 115 (2016), 637-645.

[38]

C. TanS. LuY. WangY. ZhuT. ShiM. LinZ. DengZ. WangN. Song and S. Li, Long-term exposure to high air pollution induces cumulative dna damages in traffic policemen, Science of the Total Environment, 593 (2017), 330-336.

[39]

J. TanK. Y. LowN. M. N. SulaimanR. R. Tan and M. A. B. Promentilla, Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fahp) for multi-criteria selection of microalgae harvesting and drying processes, Clean Technologies & Environmental Policy, 18 (2016), 2049-2063.

[40]

N. WestergaardU. GehringR. Slama and M. Pedersen, Ambient air pollution and low birth weight - are some women more vulnerable than others?, Environment International, 104 (2017), 146-154.

[41]

X. T. ZengY. F. TongL. CuiX. M. KongY. N. ShengL. Chen and Y. P. Li, Population-production-pollution nexus based air pollution management model for alleviating the atmospheric crisis in beijing, china, Journal of Environmental Management, 197 (2017), 507-521.

[42]

S. Y. Zeraatkish, Utilization of analytic hierarchy process (ahp) to meet management objectives in fishery industry of the sea of oman, Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 15 (2016), 1379-1387.

[43]

C. Zhang and Z. Yang, Evaluation of urban agricultural landscape based on analytic hierarchy process, Agro Food Industry Hi Tech, 27 (2016), 42-46.

[44]

L. Y. ZhaoH. HuangZ. J. GuanH. Y. WangJ. D. ZhangM. S. LiuF. Li and C. Y. Liu, Efficiency evaluation of an internet plus university student affairs system based on fuzzy theory and the analytic hierarchy process, Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, 31 (2016), 3121-3130.

[45]

S. H. ZyoudH. ShaheenS. SamhanA. RabiF. Al-Wadi and D. Fuchs-Hanusch, Electronic offprint utilizing analytic hierarchy process (ahp) for decision making in water loss management of intermittent water supply systems, Journal of Water Sanitation & Hygiene for Development, 6 (2016), 534-546.

Figure 1.  Index system for atmospheric environmental quality assessment
Figure 2.  Data flow of the analytic hierarchy process
Figure 3.  Average diurnal variations for different types of pollutants for different cities
Figure 4.  Average yearly variations for different types of pollutants for different cities
Figure 5.  Index weight for the proposed index system
Figure 6.  Atmospheric environmental quality assessment results
Table 1.  Original data for the atmospheric environmental quality influencing factors
Index City 1 City 2 City 3 City 4 City 5
X1 1562.3 1268.5 1324.5 1025.6 985.6
X2 835.3 824.6 814.7 820.4 809.3
X3 1896.7 2265.3 2859.1 3258.4 3896.4
X4 4587.6 5247.4 5035.9 6254.6 8529.4
X5 50.24 56.1 63.58 80.47 94.6
X6 44.8 45.1 46.2 45.1 47.5
X7 1258.7 1632.9 1845.1 1965.4 2154.8
X8 2856.4 3021.6 3564.9 3458.2 3874.2
X9 1045.9 1296.5 1358.4 1585.4 1478.7
X10 2689.7 2897.4 3025.4 3024.6 3154.9
X11 11.25 12.58 13.62 12.94 14.38
X12 5.84 4.62 4.78 4.32 3.74
X13 2.23 1.98 1.74 1.62 1.47
X14 7.56 8.14 8.56 9.21 9.76
X15 42589 52874 56987 62547 78451
Index City 1 City 2 City 3 City 4 City 5
X1 1562.3 1268.5 1324.5 1025.6 985.6
X2 835.3 824.6 814.7 820.4 809.3
X3 1896.7 2265.3 2859.1 3258.4 3896.4
X4 4587.6 5247.4 5035.9 6254.6 8529.4
X5 50.24 56.1 63.58 80.47 94.6
X6 44.8 45.1 46.2 45.1 47.5
X7 1258.7 1632.9 1845.1 1965.4 2154.8
X8 2856.4 3021.6 3564.9 3458.2 3874.2
X9 1045.9 1296.5 1358.4 1585.4 1478.7
X10 2689.7 2897.4 3025.4 3024.6 3154.9
X11 11.25 12.58 13.62 12.94 14.38
X12 5.84 4.62 4.78 4.32 3.74
X13 2.23 1.98 1.74 1.62 1.47
X14 7.56 8.14 8.56 9.21 9.76
X15 42589 52874 56987 62547 78451
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