# American Institute of Mathematical Sciences

## Convergence rates of solutions for a two-species chemotaxis-Navier-Stokes sytstem with competitive kinetics

 1 Department of Mathematics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China 2 Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China

* Corresponding author

Received  January 2018 Revised  April 2018 Published  August 2018

We study the convergence rates of solutions to the two-species chemotaxis-Navier-Stokes system with Lotka-Volterra competitive kinetics:
 $\begin{equation*} \begin{cases} & (n_1)_t + u\cdot\nabla n_1 = \Delta n_1 - \chi_1\nabla\cdot(n_1\nabla c) + \mu_1n_1(1- n_1 - a_1n_2), \\ &\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x\in \Omega,\ t>0, \\ & (n_2)_t + u\cdot\nabla n_2 = \Delta n_2 - \chi_2\nabla\cdot(n_2\nabla c) + \mu_2n_2(1- a_2n_1 - n_2), \\ &\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x\in \Omega,\ t>0, \\ & c_t + u\cdot\nabla c = \Delta c -(\alpha n_1 + \beta n_2)c, x \in \Omega,\ t>0, \\ & \ u_t + \kappa (u\cdot\nabla) u = \Delta u + \nabla P + (\gamma n_1 + \delta n_2)\nabla\phi, \quad \nabla\cdot u = 0, \\&\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x \in \Omega,\ t>0 \end{cases} \end{equation*}$
under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions for
 $n_1,n_2,c$
and no-slip boundary condition for
 $u$
in a bounded domain
 $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^d(d\in\{2,3\})$
with smooth boundary. The global existence, boundedness and stabilization of solutions have been obtained in
 $2$
-D [8] and
 $3$
-D for
 $\kappa = 0$
and
 $\frac{\max\{\chi_1,\chi_2\}}{\min\{\mu_1,\mu_2\}}\|c_0\|_{L^\infty(\Omega)}$
being sufficiently small [4]. Here, we examine further convergence and derive the explicit rates of convergence for any supposedly given global bounded classical solution
 $(n_1, n_2, c, u)$
; more specifically, in
 $L^\infty$
-topology, we show that
 $(n_1(\cdot,t), n_2(\cdot,t), u(\cdot,t))\overset{t\rightarrow\infty}\rightarrow \begin{cases} (\frac{1 - a_1}{1 - a_1a_2},\frac{1 - a_2}{1 - a_1a_2},0) \text{ exponentially,}\\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \text{ if } a_1, a_2 \in (0, 1), \\ (0,1,0) \text{ exponentially, if } a_1>1> a_2, \\ (0,1,0) \text{ algebraically, if } a_1 = 1> a_2, \\ (1,,0,0) \text{ exponentially, if } a_2>1> a_1, \\ (1,0,0) \text{ algebraically, if } a_2 = 1> a_1. \end{cases}$
In either cases, the
 $c$
-solution component converges exponentially to
 $0$
.
Moreover, it is shown that only the rate of convergence for
 $u$
is expressed in terms of the model parameters and the first eigenvalue of
 $-\Delta$
in
 $\Omega$
under homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions, and all other rates of convergence are explicitly expressed only in terms of the model parameters
 $a_i, \mu_i, \alpha$
and
 $\beta$
and the space dimension
 $d$
.
Citation: Hai-Yang Jin, Tian Xiang. Convergence rates of solutions for a two-species chemotaxis-Navier-Stokes sytstem with competitive kinetics. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2018249
##### References:
 [1] X. Bai and M. Winkler, Equilibration in a fully parabolic two-species chemotaxis system with competitive kinetics, Indiana Univ. Math. J., 65 (2016), 553-583. doi: 10.1512/iumj.2016.65.5776. [2] T. Black, J. Lankeit and M. Mizukami, On the weakly competitive case in a two-species chemotaxis model, IMA J. Appl. Math., 81 (2016), 860-876. doi: 10.1093/imamat/hxw036. [3] X. Cao, Global bounded solutions of the higher-dimensional Keller-Segel system under smallness conditions in optimal spaces, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 35 (2015), 1891-1904. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.1891. [4] X. Cao, S. Kurima and M. Mizukami, Global existence and asymptotic behavior of classical solutions for a 3D two-species chemotaxis-Stokes system with competitive kinetics, arXiv: 1703.01794, Math Meth Appl Sci., 41 (2018), 3138–3154. doi: 10.1002/mma.4807. [5] E. Conway, D. Hoff and J. Smoller, Large time behavior of solutions of systems of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations, SIAM J. Appl. Math., 35 (1978), 1-16. doi: 10.1137/0135001. [6] P. De Mottoni and F. Rothe, Convergence to homogeneous equilibrium state for generalized Volterra-Lotka systems with diffusion, SIAM J. Appl. Math., 37 (1979), 648-663. doi: 10.1137/0137048. [7] D. Henry, Geometric Theory of Semilinear Parabolic Equations, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, 840, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-New York, 1981. [8] M. Hirata, S. Kurima, M. Mizukami and T. Yokota, Boundedness and stabilization in a two-dimensional two-species chemotaxis-Navier-Stokes system with competitive kinetics, J. Differential Equations, 263 (2017), 470-490. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2017.02.045. [9] M. Hirata, S. Kurima, M. Mizukami and T. Yokota, Boundedness and stabilization in a three-dimensional two-species chemotaxis-Navier-Stokes system with competitive kinetics, Proceedings of EQUADIFF 2017 Conference, (2017), 11-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2017.02.045. [10] H. Jin and Z. Wang, Global stability of prey-taxis systems, J. Differential Equations, 262 (2017), 1257-1290. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2016.10.010. [11] Y. Kan-on and E. Yanagida, Existence of nonconstant stable equilibria in competition-diffusion equations, Hiroshima Math. J., 23 (1993), 193-221. [12] O. Ladyzhenskaya, V. Solonnikov and N. Uralceva, Linear and Quasilinear Equations of Parabolic Type, AMS, Providence, RI, 1968. [13] J. Lankeit, Long-term behaviour in a chemotaxis-fluid system with logistic source, Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci., 26 (2016), 2071-2109. doi: 10.1142/S021820251640008X. [14] J. Lankeit and Y. Wang, Global existence, boundedness and stabilization in a high-dimensional chemotaxis system with consumption, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 37 (2017), 6099-6121. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2017262. [15] Y. Lou and W.-M. Ni, Diffusion, self-diffusion and cross-diffusion, J. Differential Equaations, 131 (1996), 79-131. doi: 10.1006/jdeq.1996.0157. [16] M. Mimura, S. I. Ei and Q. Fang, Effect of domain-shape on coexistence problems in a competition-diffusion system, J. Math. Biol., 29 (1991), 219-237. doi: 10.1007/BF00160536. [17] M. Mizukami, Boundedness and asymptotic stability in a two-species chemotaxis-competition model with signal-dependent sensitivity, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B, 22 (2017), 2301-2319. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2017097. [18] M. Mizukami and T. Yokota, Global existence and asymptotic stability of solutions to a two-species chemotaxis system with any chemical diffusion, J. Differential Equations, 261 (2016), 2650-2669. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2016.05.008. [19] M. Negreanu and J. I. Tello, Asymptotic stability of a two species chemotaxis system with non-diffusive chemoattractant, J. Differential Equations, 258 (2015), 1592-1617. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2014.11.009. [20] M. Negreanu and J. I. Tello, On a two species chemotaxis model with slow chemical diffusion, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 46 (2014), 3761-3781. doi: 10.1137/140971853. [21] M. Porzio and V. Vespri, Hölder estimates for local solutions of some doubly nonlinear degenerate parabolic equations, J. Differential Equations, 103 (1993), 146-178. doi: 10.1006/jdeq.1993.1045. [22] C. Stinner, J. I. Tello and M. Winkler, Competitive exclusion in a two-species chemotaxis model, J. Math. Biol., 68 (2014), 1607-1626. doi: 10.1007/s00285-013-0681-7. [23] Y. Tao, Boundedness in a chemotaxis model with oxygen consumption by bacteria, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 381 (2011), 521-529. doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2011.02.041. [24] Y. Tao and M. Winkler, Eventual smoothness and stabilization of large-data solutions in a three-dimensional chemotaxis system with consumption of chemoattractant, J. Differential Equations, 252 (2012), 2520-2543. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2011.07.010. [25] Y. Tao and M. Winkler, Boundedness and decay enforced by quadratic degradation in a three-dimensional chemotaxis-fluid system, Z. Angew. Math. Phys., 66 (2015), 2555-2573. doi: 10.1007/s00033-015-0541-y. [26] Y. Tao and M. Winkler, Large time behavior in a multidimensional chemotaxis-haptotaxis model with slow signal diffusion, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 47 (2015), 4229-4250. doi: 10.1137/15M1014115. [27] Y. Tao and M. Winkler, Blow-up prevention by quadratic degradation in a two-dimensional Keller-Segel-Navier-Stokes system, Z. Angew. Math. Phys., 67 (2016), Art. 138, 23 pp. doi: 10.1007/s00033-016-0732-1. [28] I. Tuval, L. Cisneros, C. Dombrowski, C. W. Wolgemuth, J. O. Kessler and R. E. Goldstein, Bacterial swimming and oxygen transport near contact lines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102 (2005), 2277-2282. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0406724102. [29] M. Winkler, Aggregation vs. global diffusive behavior in the higher-dimensional Keller-Segel model, J. Differential Equations, 248 (2010), 2889-2905. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2010.02.008. [30] M. Winkler, Boundedness in the higher-dimensional parabolic-parabolic chemotaxis system with logistic source, Comm. Partial Differential Equations, 35 (2010), 1516-1537. doi: 10.1080/03605300903473426. [31] M. Winkler, Global large-data solutions in a chemotaxis-(Navier-)Stokes system modeling cellular swimming in fluid drops, Comm. Partial Differential Equations, 37 (2012), 319-351. doi: 10.1080/03605302.2011.591865. [32] M. Winkler, Finite-time blow-up in the higher-dimensional parabolic-parabolic Keller-Segel system, J. Math. Pures Appl., 100 (2013), 748-767. doi: 10.1016/j.matpur.2013.01.020. [33] M. Winkler, Stabilization in a two-dimensional chemotaxis-Navier-Stokes system, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 211 (2014), 455-487. doi: 10.1007/s00205-013-0678-9. [34] M. Winkler, Global asymptotic stability of constant equilibria in a fully parabolic chemotaxis system with strong logistic dampening, J. Differential Equations, 257 (2014), 1056-1077. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2014.04.023. [35] M. Winkler, How far do chemotaxis-driven forces influence regularity in the Navier-Stokes system?, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 369 (2017), 3067-3125. doi: 10.1090/tran/6733. [36] T. Xiang, How strong a logistic damping can prevent blow-up for the minimal Keller-Segel chemotaxis system?, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 459 (2018), 1172-1200. doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2017.11.022. [37] Q. Zhang and Y. Li, Convergence rates of solutions for a two-dimensional chemotaxis-Navier-Stokes system, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B, 20 (2015), 2751-2759. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2015.20.2751.

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##### References:
 [1] X. Bai and M. Winkler, Equilibration in a fully parabolic two-species chemotaxis system with competitive kinetics, Indiana Univ. Math. J., 65 (2016), 553-583. doi: 10.1512/iumj.2016.65.5776. [2] T. Black, J. Lankeit and M. Mizukami, On the weakly competitive case in a two-species chemotaxis model, IMA J. Appl. Math., 81 (2016), 860-876. doi: 10.1093/imamat/hxw036. [3] X. Cao, Global bounded solutions of the higher-dimensional Keller-Segel system under smallness conditions in optimal spaces, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 35 (2015), 1891-1904. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.1891. [4] X. Cao, S. Kurima and M. Mizukami, Global existence and asymptotic behavior of classical solutions for a 3D two-species chemotaxis-Stokes system with competitive kinetics, arXiv: 1703.01794, Math Meth Appl Sci., 41 (2018), 3138–3154. doi: 10.1002/mma.4807. [5] E. Conway, D. Hoff and J. Smoller, Large time behavior of solutions of systems of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations, SIAM J. Appl. Math., 35 (1978), 1-16. doi: 10.1137/0135001. [6] P. De Mottoni and F. Rothe, Convergence to homogeneous equilibrium state for generalized Volterra-Lotka systems with diffusion, SIAM J. Appl. Math., 37 (1979), 648-663. doi: 10.1137/0137048. [7] D. Henry, Geometric Theory of Semilinear Parabolic Equations, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, 840, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-New York, 1981. [8] M. Hirata, S. Kurima, M. Mizukami and T. Yokota, Boundedness and stabilization in a two-dimensional two-species chemotaxis-Navier-Stokes system with competitive kinetics, J. Differential Equations, 263 (2017), 470-490. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2017.02.045. [9] M. Hirata, S. Kurima, M. Mizukami and T. Yokota, Boundedness and stabilization in a three-dimensional two-species chemotaxis-Navier-Stokes system with competitive kinetics, Proceedings of EQUADIFF 2017 Conference, (2017), 11-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2017.02.045. [10] H. Jin and Z. Wang, Global stability of prey-taxis systems, J. Differential Equations, 262 (2017), 1257-1290. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2016.10.010. [11] Y. Kan-on and E. Yanagida, Existence of nonconstant stable equilibria in competition-diffusion equations, Hiroshima Math. J., 23 (1993), 193-221. [12] O. Ladyzhenskaya, V. Solonnikov and N. Uralceva, Linear and Quasilinear Equations of Parabolic Type, AMS, Providence, RI, 1968. [13] J. Lankeit, Long-term behaviour in a chemotaxis-fluid system with logistic source, Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci., 26 (2016), 2071-2109. doi: 10.1142/S021820251640008X. [14] J. Lankeit and Y. Wang, Global existence, boundedness and stabilization in a high-dimensional chemotaxis system with consumption, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 37 (2017), 6099-6121. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2017262. [15] Y. Lou and W.-M. Ni, Diffusion, self-diffusion and cross-diffusion, J. Differential Equaations, 131 (1996), 79-131. doi: 10.1006/jdeq.1996.0157. [16] M. Mimura, S. I. Ei and Q. Fang, Effect of domain-shape on coexistence problems in a competition-diffusion system, J. Math. Biol., 29 (1991), 219-237. doi: 10.1007/BF00160536. [17] M. Mizukami, Boundedness and asymptotic stability in a two-species chemotaxis-competition model with signal-dependent sensitivity, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B, 22 (2017), 2301-2319. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2017097. [18] M. Mizukami and T. Yokota, Global existence and asymptotic stability of solutions to a two-species chemotaxis system with any chemical diffusion, J. Differential Equations, 261 (2016), 2650-2669. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2016.05.008. [19] M. Negreanu and J. I. Tello, Asymptotic stability of a two species chemotaxis system with non-diffusive chemoattractant, J. Differential Equations, 258 (2015), 1592-1617. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2014.11.009. [20] M. Negreanu and J. I. Tello, On a two species chemotaxis model with slow chemical diffusion, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 46 (2014), 3761-3781. doi: 10.1137/140971853. [21] M. Porzio and V. Vespri, Hölder estimates for local solutions of some doubly nonlinear degenerate parabolic equations, J. Differential Equations, 103 (1993), 146-178. doi: 10.1006/jdeq.1993.1045. [22] C. Stinner, J. I. Tello and M. Winkler, Competitive exclusion in a two-species chemotaxis model, J. Math. Biol., 68 (2014), 1607-1626. doi: 10.1007/s00285-013-0681-7. [23] Y. Tao, Boundedness in a chemotaxis model with oxygen consumption by bacteria, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 381 (2011), 521-529. doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2011.02.041. [24] Y. Tao and M. Winkler, Eventual smoothness and stabilization of large-data solutions in a three-dimensional chemotaxis system with consumption of chemoattractant, J. Differential Equations, 252 (2012), 2520-2543. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2011.07.010. [25] Y. Tao and M. Winkler, Boundedness and decay enforced by quadratic degradation in a three-dimensional chemotaxis-fluid system, Z. Angew. Math. Phys., 66 (2015), 2555-2573. doi: 10.1007/s00033-015-0541-y. [26] Y. Tao and M. Winkler, Large time behavior in a multidimensional chemotaxis-haptotaxis model with slow signal diffusion, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 47 (2015), 4229-4250. doi: 10.1137/15M1014115. [27] Y. Tao and M. Winkler, Blow-up prevention by quadratic degradation in a two-dimensional Keller-Segel-Navier-Stokes system, Z. Angew. Math. Phys., 67 (2016), Art. 138, 23 pp. doi: 10.1007/s00033-016-0732-1. [28] I. Tuval, L. Cisneros, C. Dombrowski, C. W. Wolgemuth, J. O. Kessler and R. E. Goldstein, Bacterial swimming and oxygen transport near contact lines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102 (2005), 2277-2282. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0406724102. [29] M. Winkler, Aggregation vs. global diffusive behavior in the higher-dimensional Keller-Segel model, J. Differential Equations, 248 (2010), 2889-2905. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2010.02.008. [30] M. Winkler, Boundedness in the higher-dimensional parabolic-parabolic chemotaxis system with logistic source, Comm. Partial Differential Equations, 35 (2010), 1516-1537. doi: 10.1080/03605300903473426. [31] M. Winkler, Global large-data solutions in a chemotaxis-(Navier-)Stokes system modeling cellular swimming in fluid drops, Comm. Partial Differential Equations, 37 (2012), 319-351. doi: 10.1080/03605302.2011.591865. [32] M. Winkler, Finite-time blow-up in the higher-dimensional parabolic-parabolic Keller-Segel system, J. Math. Pures Appl., 100 (2013), 748-767. doi: 10.1016/j.matpur.2013.01.020. [33] M. Winkler, Stabilization in a two-dimensional chemotaxis-Navier-Stokes system, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 211 (2014), 455-487. doi: 10.1007/s00205-013-0678-9. [34] M. Winkler, Global asymptotic stability of constant equilibria in a fully parabolic chemotaxis system with strong logistic dampening, J. Differential Equations, 257 (2014), 1056-1077. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2014.04.023. [35] M. Winkler, How far do chemotaxis-driven forces influence regularity in the Navier-Stokes system?, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 369 (2017), 3067-3125. doi: 10.1090/tran/6733. [36] T. Xiang, How strong a logistic damping can prevent blow-up for the minimal Keller-Segel chemotaxis system?, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 459 (2018), 1172-1200. doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2017.11.022. [37] Q. Zhang and Y. Li, Convergence rates of solutions for a two-dimensional chemotaxis-Navier-Stokes system, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B, 20 (2015), 2751-2759. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2015.20.2751.
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